Medical Terminology

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Medical Terminology
2010-11-12 14:30:40
Med Term Chapter

Blood, Lymph, and Immune System
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  1. home/o
  2. -stasis
    controlling, stopping
  3. homeostasis
    steady state or continual blancing act of the body system
  4. blood
    hem/o, hemat/o
  5. lymph
    lymph/o, lymphat/o
  6. path/o
  7. -gen
  8. pathogen
    disease producing agent
  9. immune system
    defending the body against disease via immune respose
  10. blood, immune and lymph
    body's defense mechanisms
  11. hemat/o
  12. -logist
    one who studies
  13. hematologist
    one who studies blood
  14. immun/o
    safety, protection
  15. -logy
    study of
  16. immunology
    the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases that affect the body's mechanisms
  17. hematology
    the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs
  18. immunologist
    specialist in the fieldo f immunology
  19. hematic and lymphatic
    flow through separate yet interconnected channels. Both contain vessles and liquids
  20. immune system
    complex set of levels of protection for the body; includes blood and lymph cells
  21. hemat/o
  22. -poiesis
  23. hematopoiesis
    the process of blood formation.
  24. stem cell
    cell from which all blood cells originate
  25. cells and plasma make up:
  26. erythro/o
  27. -cyte
  28. erythrocyte
    red blood cell RBC
  29. leuk/o
  30. -cyte
  31. leukocyte
    white blood cell WBC
  32. thromb/o
    clotting, clot
  33. -cyte
  34. thrombocyte
    clotting cells, cell fragments, or platelets
  35. hem/o
  36. -globin
    protein substance
  37. hemoglobin
    protein-iron pigment in RBC
  38. myel/o
    bone marrow
  39. erythr/o
  40. -poietin
    forming substance
  41. erythropoietin
    hormone from the kidneys that stimulates bone marrow formation
  42. hem/o
  43. -siderin
    iron substance
  44. hemosiderin
    decomposed RBC into an iron pigment
  45. hem/o
  46. -lysis
    breaking down
  47. hemolysis
    break down of RBCs
  48. morph/o
  49. -logy
    study of
  50. morphology
    the study of shape or form (detection of abnormal RBCs)
  51. granul/o
    little grain
  52. -cyte
  53. granulocyte
    polymorphonucleocyte; PMNs or polys; have small grains within the cytoplasm and multilobed nuclei
  54. poly
  55. morhp/o
  56. nucle/o
  57. -cyte
  58. eosin/o
  59. -phil
  60. eosinophil
    (eosinios); cells that absorb an acidic dye and turn red. Positive response for defense against allergens and parasites.
  61. neutr/o
  62. -phil
  63. neutrophils
    • do no absorb acidic or basic dyes, thus purple
    • a.k.a. phagocytes, thus combat bacteria in pyogenic "invasions"
  64. phag/o
    eat, swallow
  65. -cyte
  66. phagocyte
    consume the enemy and remove the debris
  67. bas/o
  68. -phil
  69. basophil
    cells that absorb a basic dye; stain bluish. combat parasites. release histamine and heparin; heal damaged tissue
  70. anticoagulant
    exp. heparin
  71. a
  72. graul/o
    little grain
  73. -cyte
  74. agranulocyte
    lack of granules; a.k.a. mononuclear leukocyes = have one nucleus
  75. mono-
  76. -cyte
  77. monocyte
    cells named for single large nucleus
  78. macrophages
    matured monocytes; eat pathogens & effective against severe infections
  79. lymph/o
  80. -cyte
  81. lymphocyte
    (lymphs); immune response involving antigens(foreign) and antibodies(neutralizers)
  82. thromb/o
  83. -cyte
  84. thrombocyte
    platelets, round or oval shape, aide in coagulation.
  85. coagulation
    process of changing a liquid to a solid
  86. agglutinate
    clump together; release X factor, react w/ prothrombin, form thrombin, converts to fibrinogen, then to fibrin and lastly a meshlike clot = hemostasis
  87. pro
  88. -thrombin
    clotting substance
  89. prothrombin
    reacts w/ factor X in the presence of calcium to from thrombin
  90. fibrin/o
    fiber substance
  91. -gen
  92. fibrinogen
    conversion step from thrombin to fibrin in the agglutination process
  93. hem/o
  94. -stasis
    stopping, controlling
  95. hemostasis
    control of blood flow, stopping the bleeding
  96. plasm/o
    Plasma: liquid portion of blood composed of: H2O, inorganic and organic substances, waste, plasma proteins
  97. ser/o
    serum: plasma minus clotting (plasma) proteins
  98. Serum =
    Plasma - (Prothrombin + Fibrinogen)
  99. anti
  100. -gen
  101. antigens
    substances that produce an immune response
  102. agglutin/o
  103. -gen
  104. agglutinogen
    antigens found in blood that cause blood to clump
  105. antibodies
    substances produced by the body that nullify or neutralize antigens
  106. agglutin/o
  107. -in
  108. agglutinin
    when antigen is agglutinogen, antibody is agglutinin; substance that clumps
  109. universal recipient
    person w/ type AB blood (can receive any)
  110. universal donor
    can give any, has neither A nor B antigens, thus no clumping
  111. Rh factor
    another antigen
  112. hem/o
  113. -lytic
    pertaining to breaking down
  114. hemolytic
    pertaining to the breaking down of blood
  115. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)
    Rh- mom has Rh+ antibodies to fetus, if another Rh+ pregnancy, antibodies will destroy fetal blood.
  116. lymph/o
    lymph or interstitial fluid
  117. lymphangi/o
    lymph vessel
  118. lymphaden/o
    lymph gland
  119. macro
  120. phage/o
    eat, swallow
  121. -e
    noun ending
  122. macrophage
    monocytes become macrophages, destroy pathogens, and collect debris from damaged cells.
  123. lymph nodes
    lymph glands
  124. cervic/o
  125. axill/o
    axillary, armpit
  126. inguin/o
  127. mediastin/o
  128. splen/o
  129. thym/o
  130. tonsill/o
  131. append/o, appendic/o
  132. Lymphatic organs
    spleen, thymus gland, tonsils, and appendix, Pyer's patch
  133. cyt/o
  134. -kine
  135. cytokine
    chemical messangers that direct immune cellular interactions
  136. lymph/o
  137. -kine
  138. lymphokine
    secreted by lymphocytes (B cells or T cells)
  139. mono-
  140. -kine
  141. monokine
    secreted by monocytes and macrophages
  142. inter-
  143. -leukin
    white substance
  144. interleukin
    cytokin that sends messages among leukocytes
  145. nonspecific immunity
    ways the body protects itself with out "recognizing" pathogen
  146. specific immunity
    natural or aquired
  147. mechanical immunity (1st line in non specific)
    skin, mucous membrane
  148. physical immunity (1st line in non specific)
    coughing, sneezing, vomiting, diarrhea
  149. chemical immunity (1st line of non specific)
    tears, saliva, perspiration
  150. phag/o
    eat, swallow
  151. cyt/o
  152. -osis
    abnormal condition
  153. Phagocytosis (second line of non specific)
    pathogens consumed by neutrophils and monocytes
  154. inflammation (second line of non specific)
    immediate vasoconstriction and vascular permeablilty
  155. infection
    inflammation caused by pathogen
  156. pyr/o
    fever, fire
  157. -exia
  158. pyrexia (second line of non specific)
    fever functioning to increase the action of phagocytes and decreasing the viability of certain pathogens.
  159. protective proteins
    second line of defense non specific
  160. interferons
    interfere with viral replication
  161. complement proteins
    become activated in the presence of bacteria, enabling them to lyse the organisms
  162. natural killer (NK) cells
    lymphocyte acts to kill cells that have been infected by pathoges
  163. genetic
    inherited ability (to resist certain diseases_
  164. acquired
    bodys ability to respond (natural and artificial)
  165. immunoglobulins (Ig)
    antibodies; part of specific immunity
  166. cell-mediated immunity T cells
    attack atigens directly
  167. humor/o
  168. -al
    pertaining to
  169. humoral
    pertaining to liquid or secretion of antibodies
  170. Humoral immunity B cells
    antibody-mediated immunity
  171. Active acquired immunity
    natural: memory cells

    artificial: vaccination (immunization)
  172. passive acquired immunity
    Natural: passage of antibodies through the placenta

    Artificial: immunoglobulins harvested from a donor who developed resistance against specific antigens.
  173. append/o, appendic/o
  174. axill/o
    axilla, armpit
  175. bas/o
  176. hem/o, hemat/o
  177. myel/o
    bone marrow
  178. thromb/o
    clotting, clot
  179. agglutin/o
  180. path/o
  181. phag/o
    eat, swallow
  182. pyr/o
    fever, fire
  183. fibr/o
  184. inguin/o
  185. granul/o
    little grain
  186. lymph/o, lymphat/o
  187. lymphaden/o
    lymph gland (node)
  188. lymphangi/o
    lymph vessel
  189. mediastin/o
  190. cervic/o
  191. neutr/o
  192. nucle/o
  193. plasm/o
  194. erythr/o
  195. eosin/o
  196. immun/o
    safety, protection
  197. home/o
  198. ser/o
  199. morph/o
  200. splen/o
  201. thym/o
  202. tonsill/o
  203. leuk/o
  204. a-
  205. anti-
  206. inter-
  207. macro-
  208. mono-
  209. poly-
  210. pro-
  211. -cyte
  212. -exia
  213. -gen
  214. -globin
    protein substance
  215. -in
  216. -kine
  217. -leukin
    white substance
  218. -logy
    study of
  219. -lysis
    breaking down
  220. -lytic
    pertaining to breaking down
  221. -osis
    abnormal condition
  222. -phil
  223. -poiesis
  224. -poietin
    forming substance
  225. -siderin
    iron substance
  226. -stasis
    controlling, stopping
  227. -thrombin
    clotting substance
  228. dyscrasia
    disease, more specifically to do w/ blood or bone marrow
  229. Anemia
    a decrease in red blood cells, hemoglobin, and/or hematocrit
  230. post-
  231. hem/o
  232. -rrhagic
    pertaining to bursting forth
  233. an-
    no, not
  234. -emia
    blood condition
  235. acute posthemorrhagic anemia
    RBC deficiency caused by blood loss
  236. B12 deficiency
    • insufficient levels of cobalamin (aka B12), essential for RBC maturation.
    • Due to inadequate diet or absence of intrinsic factor.
  237. Chronic blood loss
    long-term internal bleeding. May cause anemia
  238. folate deficiency
    anemia as a result of a lack of folate from dietary, drug-induced, congenital, or other causes.
  239. hypo-
  240. vol/o
  241. -emia
    blood condition
  242. hypovolemia
    deficient volume of circulating blood
  243. sider/o
  244. -penia
  245. sideropenia
    condition of having reduced numbers of RBCs b/c of chronic blood loss, inadequate iron intake, or unspecified causes. A type of iron deficiency anemia.
  246. an-
    no, not
  247. -emia
    blood circulation
  248. pernicious anemia
    progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factors essiential for the absorption of vitamin B12.
  249. a-
    no, not
  250. plast/o
  251. -ic
    pertaining to
  252. an-
    no, not
  253. -emia
    blood condition
  254. aplastic anemia
    suppression of bone marrow function leading to a reduction in RBC production. Although causes of this often fatal type of anemia may be hepatitis, radiation, or cytotoxic agents, most causes are idiopathic. Also called hypoplastic anemia.
  255. hem/o
  256. -lytic
    pertaining to destruction
  257. hemolytic anemia
    a group of anemias caused by destruction of red blood cells
  258. auto-
  259. immune
    safety, protection
  260. hem/o
  261. -lytic
    pertaining to destruction
  262. an-
    no, not
  263. -emia
    blood condition
  264. autoimmune acquired hemolytic anemia
    anemia aquired by the body's destruction of its own RBCs by serum antibodies
  265. non-
  266. hem/o
  267. -lytic
    pertaining to destruction
  268. an-
    no, not
  269. -emia
    blood condition
  270. nonautoimmune aquired hemolytic anemia
    anemia that may be drug induced or may be caused by an infectious disease
  271. sickle cell anemia
    inherited anemia characterized by crescent-shaped RBCs which block capillaries and decrease O2 supply to cells. Sickle cell crisis is acute, painful exacerbation of sickle-cell anemia.
  272. thalassemias
    group of inherited disorders of people of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian descent, in which the anemia is the result of a decrease in the synthesis of hemoglobin, resulting in decreased production and increased destruction of RBCs
  273. pan-
  274. cyt/o
  275. -penia
  276. pancytopenia
    deficiency of all blood cells caused by dysfunctional stem cells
  277. hem/o
  278. -philia
    attraction condition
  279. hemophilia
    group of inherited bleeding disorders characterized by a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
  280. poly-
  281. cyt/o
  282. -emia
    blood condition
  283. vera
  284. polycythemia vera
    chronic increase in the number of RBCs and the concentration of hemoglobin. "Vera" signifies that theis is not a sequela of another condition.
  285. purpur/o
  286. -a
    noun ending
  287. purpura
    bleeding disorder characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues
  288. thromb/o
    clot, clotting
  289. cyt/o
  290. -penia
  291. thrombocytopenia
    deficiency of platelets that causes an inability of the blood to clot. The most common cause of bleeding disorders.
  292. leuk/o
    white blood cell
  293. -cytosis
    abnormal increase in cells
  294. leukocytosis
    abnormal increase in WBCs. Abnormal increases in each type of granulocyte are termed eosinophilia, basophilia, or neutrophilia, where the suffix -philia denotes a slight increase. Abnormal increase in the number of each type of agranulocyte are termed lyphocytosis or moncytosis.
  295. leukopenia
    abnormal decrease WBCs. Specific deficiencies are termed neutropenia, eosinopenia, monocytopenia, and lymphocytopenia. Also called leukocytopenia.
  296. neutr/o
  297. neutropenia
    abnormal decrease in neutrophils due to disease process. Formerly called agranulocytosis
  298. edema
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intersitial spaces of tissues.
  299. hyper-
  300. splen/o
  301. -ism
  302. hypersplenism
    increased function of the spleen, resulting in hemolysis.
  303. lymphaden/o
    lymph gland
  304. -itis
  305. lymphadenitis
    inflammaation of a lymph node.
  306. lymphadenopathy
    disease of the lymph nodes or vessles that may be localized or generalized
  307. lymphangi/o
    lymph vessel
  308. -itis
  309. lymphangitis
    inflammation of lymph vessels
  310. lymphedema
    accumulation of lymphatic fluid and resultant swelling caused by obstruction, removal, or hypoplasia of lymph vessels.
  311. lymphocyt/o
  312. lymphocytopenia
    deficiency of lymphocytes caused by infectious mononucleosis, malignancy, nutritional deficiency, or a hematologic disorder.
  313. lymphocytosis
    abnormal increase in lymphocytes
  314. mono-
  315. nucle/o
  316. -osis
    abnormal condition
  317. mononucleosis
    increase in the number of mononuclear cells (monocytes and lympocytes) in the blood caused by the epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Can result in splenomegaly (enlarged spleen).
  318. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
    caused by HIV and transmitted through body fluids. HIV attacts helper T cells which diminishes the immune response
  319. allergy
    immune system's overreaction to irritants that are perceived as antigens. The substance that causes the irritation is called an allergen. Also called hypersensitivity.
  320. ana-
  321. -phylaxis
  322. anaphylaxis
    extreme form of allergic response in which the patient suffers severely decreased blood pressure and constriction of the airways.
  323. delayed allergy
    immune system hypersensitivity caused by activated T cells that respond to an exposure of the skin to a chemical irritant up to 2 days later. An example would be poison ivy. The resulting rash is called contact dermatitis.
  324. immediate allergy
    Hypersensitivity of the immune system caused by IgE. Example are tree and grass pollens.
  325. auto-
  326. immun/o
    safety, protection
  327. autoimmune disease
    T cells attack own cells, causing tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Myasthenia gravis, rheumatiod arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis are exapmple of autoimmune diseases.
  328. thym/o
    thymus gland
  329. -oma
  330. thymoma
    noncancerous tumor of epithelial origin that is often associated with myasthenia gravis
  331. lymph/o
  332. cyt/o
  333. -ic
    pertaining to
  334. leuk/o
  335. -emia
    blood condition
  336. acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
    a.k.a. acute lymphoblastic leukemia, characterized by the uncontrolled proliferation of immature lymphocytes. Itis the most common type ofleukemia for individuals under age 19.
  337. myel/o
    bone marrow
  338. -genous
    pertaining to originating from
  339. leuk/o
  340. -emia
    blood condition
  341. acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
    rapidly progressive form of leukemia develops from immature bone marrow stem cells.
  342. chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
    slowly progressing form of leukemia in which immature lymphocytes proliferate. Occurs most frequently in middle age adults, rarely in children.
  343. chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
    immature bone marrow cells proliferate, similar to CLL
  344. Hodgkin lymphoma
    cancer diagnosed by detection of a type of cell specific only to this diserder: Reed-Sternberg cells.
  345. myeloma, multiple
    a.k.a. plasma cell dyscrasia or myelomatosis, this rare malignancy of plasma cells is formed from B lymphocytes. It is called "multiple" myeloma because the tumors are found in many bones. If it occurs in only one bone, the tumor is referred to as a plasmacytoma.
  346. non-Hodgkin lymphoma
    a collection of all other lymphatic cancers but Hodgkin lymphomas. This type is the more numerous of the two lymphomas and is the sixth most common type of cancer in the US
  347. thymoma, malignant
    a.k.a. thymic carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the thymus gland particularly invasive and unlike its benign form, is not associated with autoimmune disorders.
  348. lymphadenography
    radiographic visualization of the lymph gland after injection of a radiopaque substance. Also called lymphography.
  349. lymphangiography
    radiographic visualization of a part of the lymphatic system after inejction with a radiopaque substance.
  350. splenic arteriography
    radiographic visualization of the spleen with the use of a contrast medium.
  351. AIDS tests- ELISA, Western blot
    tests to detect the presence of HIV types 1 and 2.
  352. allergy testing
    series of tests involving a patch, scratch, or intradermal injection of an attenuated amount of an allergen to test for hypersensitivity.
  353. basic metabolic panel (BMP)
    group of blood tests to measure calcuim, glucose, electrolytes such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chloride (Cl), creatinie, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).
  354. blood cultures
    blood samples are submitted to propagate microorganisms that may be present. Cultures may be indicated for bacteremia or septicemia, or to discover other pathogens (fungi, viruses, or parasites)
  355. complete blood count
    twelve tests, including RBC (red blood cell count), WBC (white blood cell count), Hb (hemoglobin), Hct/PCV (hematocrit/packed-cell volume), and diff (WBC differential).
  356. comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)
    set of 14 blood tests that add protein and liver function tests to the BMP. Glucose is also measured with a different method than in the basic panel.
  357. Coombs antiglobulin test
    blood test to diagonose hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), acquired hemolytic anemia, or a transfusion reaction.
  358. diff count
    meausure of the numbers of the different types of WBCs
  359. erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
    measurement of the time mature RBCs to settle out of a blood sample after an anticoagulant is added. An increased ESR indicates inflammation.
  360. heatocrit (Hct), packed-cell volume (PCV)
    measure of the percentages of RBCs in the blood.
  361. hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb)
    iron-containing pigment of RBCs that carries oxygen to tissues
  362. mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
    test to measure the average weight of hemoglobin per RBC. Useful in diagnosing anemia
  363. mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrate (MCHC)
    test to measure the concentration of hemoglobin in RBCs. This test is useful for measuring a patient's response to treatment for anemia.
  364. monospot
    test for infectious mononucleosis.
  365. partial thromboplastin time (PTT)
    test of blood plasma to detect coagulation defects of the intrinsic system; used to detect hemophilias.
  366. prothrombin time (PT)
    test that measures the amount of tie taken for clot formation. It is used to determine the cause of unexplained bleeding, to assess levels of anticoagulation in patients taing warfarin or with vitamin K deficiency, and to assess the ability of the liver to syntheisze blood-clotting proteins.
  367. Schillings test
    nuclear medicine test used to diagnose pernicious anemia and other metabolic disorders
  368. -apheresis
  369. apheresis
    temporary removal of blood from a donor, in which one or more components are removed, and te rest of the blood is reinfused into the donor. Esamples include leukapheresis, removal of WBCs; plasmapheresis, removal of plasma; and plateletpheresis, rmoval of thrombocytes. Also called pheresis.
  370. bone marrow transplant (BMT)
    the transplantation of bone marrow to stimulate production of normal blood cells.
  371. auto-
  372. log/o
  373. -ous
    pertaining to
  374. autologous bone marrow transplant
    Harvesting of patient's own healthy bone marrow efore treatment for reintroduction later.
  375. homologous bone marrow transplant
    transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a doner to a recipient to stimulate formation of new blood cells
  376. blood transfusion
    intravenous transfer of blood from a donor to a recipient, giving either whole blood or its components.
  377. autologous transfusion
    process in which the donor's own blood is removed and stored in anticipation of a future need
  378. autotransfusion
    process in which the donor is transfused with his/her own blood, after anticoagulation and filtration, from an active bleeding site in cases of major surgery or trauma.
  379. adenoid/o
  380. -ectomy
  381. adenoidectomy
    removal of the adenoids. Also called the pharyngeal tonsils.
  382. biopsy (bx) of lymphatic structures
    removal of the lymph nodes or lymphoid tissue as a means to diagnosis and treatment
  383. lymphadenectomy
    removal of a lymph node.
  384. splenectomy
    removal of the spleen
  385. anticoagulants
    drugs that prevent the coagulation of blood and the formation of thrombi.
  386. antiplatelets
    drugs that inhibit the function of platelets or destroy them.
  387. blood-flow modifiers
    drugs that promote blood flow by keeping platelets from clumping or decreasing blood viscosity.
  388. colony-stimulating factors (CSFs)
    agents tat stimulate the production of white blood cells in the bone marrow
  389. erythropoietic agents
    growth factors that increase production of RBCs by stimulating erythropoiesis.
  390. hematinics
    drugs that increase the number of erythrocytes and or hemoglobin concentration in the erythrocytes usually to treat iron-deficient anemia.
  391. hematopoietic agents
    drugs that stimulate blood cell production. Subdivisions of this class include colony-stimulating factors, erythropoietic agents, and thrombopoietic factors.
  392. hemostatics
    drugs that help stop the flow of blood.
  393. thrombopoietic factors
    agents that stimulate the production of thrombocytes or platelets
  394. antihistamines
    drugs that block histamine (H1) receptors to manage allergy symptoms.
  395. anti-IgE agents
    monoclonal antibodies that treat allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis.
  396. antineoplastics
    drugs used to treat cancer by preventing growth or promoting destruction of neoplastic (tumor) cells.
  397. antiretrovirals
    drugs that manage the replication of HIV and its progression into AIDS.
  398. crticosteroids
    drugs also known as steroids that suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation
  399. cytotoxic agents
    drugs used as immunosuppressants or antineoplastics in order to damage or destroy cells.
  400. immunosuppressants
    drugs that reduce the immune response.
  401. leukotriene recepor antagonists
    drugs tat block leukotrienes to manage later stages of allergic reactions; espically used to manage allergic asthma.
  402. protease inhibitors
    these drugs are a type of antiretroviral and are used to treat HIV infection. By blocking the production of an essential enzyme called protease, these drugs keep the virus from replicating.
  403. Vaccines (immunizations)
    substances administered to induce immunity or reduce the pathologic effects of a disease. Examples are the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine and the chicken pox vaccine.
  404. A, AB, O BA
    blood types