body alignment isotonic isometric isokinetic exercise nursing
The importance of activity and exercise for our patients.
What are the four basic elements of normal movement?
Body Alignment (posture)
List the 3 different types of exercises.
This exercise is dynamic and it is aerobic.
This exercise is static and involves stretching.
This exercise is resistive and involves strength training.
What are the 3 ways we measure the intensity of an exercise?
Target Heart Rate
Borg scale of perceived exertion (cardiac rehab)
How do we measure our maximum heart rate?
220 - age = max HR
What kind of exercise is better for frail patients?
This exercise contracts, shortens our muscles, and is active movement.
Aerobic exercise activates what in our bodies?
Opioid receptors and endorphins are released in our body resulting in a "high."
What has been the Healthy People 2010 objective, and it's been the objective for the past 10 years?
Moderate physical activity 30min/day
What are the other Healthy People 2010 objectives?
Focus on strength, endurance, flexibilty
Employer sponsored fitness programs
Less chronic back disability
Less overweight ppl
Successful aging is based on...
continued social connections
resiliency-ability to bounce back
self-efficacy-belief you can accomplish a task
regular physical activity
What is the number one reason women do not exercise?
Lack of mobility =
The lack of mobility is a result of multiple chronic diseases and injuries, physical function, lack of social support and healthy behaviors, what kind of individual is described here?
This lack of mobility is often a result of a single event. What kind of individual is described here?
These days people live longer, but...
quality of life goes down.
Walking outside, shopping, and doing housework are all examples of...
Exercise prevents, reverses or improves health of people with...
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Consequences of less exercise means our muscles..
We want Ca⁺ to stay in the bone by doing...
weight bearing exercises.
What happens when Ca⁺ gets into our blood?
Ca⁺ deposits can move to the kidneys= kidney stones
Move to the heart = calcification
Which of the following provide the best forms of health promotion and maintenance? Select all that apply.
b. Healthy Eating
c. Regular Physical Activity
d. Annual doctor checkups
e. Adequate health insurance
b. Healthy Eating
c. Regular Physical Activity
Mild exercise does what?
Strenuous exercise does what?
increases muscle strength
List the benefits of exercise.
Affects shape, tone, strength of muscles with mild exercise and increased streuous exercise
Increases joint flexibility
Weight bearing and high impact exercise maintains bone density and strength
Decreases the risk and incidence of falls
What are the cardiovascular benefits of exercise?
Strengthens heart muscle and blood supply
Decreased stress response
Increases venous return to heart
What the best types of exercise for cardiovascular benefits?
Yoga's benefits include...
Cardiovascular benefit of increasing venous return to heart prevents...
risk for DVT
What are the respiratory benefits of exercise?
improved gas exchange
increased O₂ to brain
prevention of secretion pooling
What are the best types of exercise to get respiratory benefits?
LE exercise for people with COPD (ex. walking around)
Yoga for ppl with asthma
Incentive spirometer in the hospital
Sitting up and standing up tall leads to...
breathing better and increases O₂
Strong chest muscles means...
can cough mucus out
What are the GI benefits of exercise?
Increased GI tone-increased peristalsis
What happens to the GI motility of someone on bedrest?
Slows down and less BMs
What are the best types of exercise for GI benefits?
Working the abdominal muscles – decreases constipation and decreases IBS
What are the metabolic/endocrine benefits of exercise?
increased metabolic rate - lasts 20 min after exercise
stabilized blood sugar & more response to insulin (which then can decrease amt. of insulin)
How much weight loss can decrease one's risk for diabetes?
5% weight loss which is about 10lbs, which is a 58% overall decrease and 71% in ppl over 60 yrs old
What are the urinary benefits of exercise?
increased blood flow
prevention of urinary stasis (kidney stones)
What specific exercise for urinary benefits can we do?
50 kegels/day/ 7 days/wk
Men at risk for prostate and women at risk for urinary incontinence
How much cardiac output goes to our kidneys?
What are the immune system benefits of exercise?
Improved lymph flow
Increased T cell function and cytokine production
Moderate exercise benefits the immune system by...
increases resistance to viral infections and prevents formation of malignant cells
Strenuous exercise affects our immune system by...
reducing immune function so pts with cancer shouldn't do strenuous exercise.
After vigorous training what should we do?
Allow our body adequate rest.
What are the psychoneurologic & cognitive benefits to exercise?
Decreased stress & anxiety
Increased O₂ to brain
Improved quality of sleep
Better decision making & problem solving
Purpose in life
Factors affecting body alignment and exercise in older adults.
Decreased muscle mass & tone
Decreased bone density, osteoporosis
Loss of joint flexibility
Healthy Goal for 2020 involves...
Schools, physical activity for kids
As adults get older what do they lose?
What is the assumption behind the elderly-flexed posture position?
Assumed to prevent falling
Elderly-flexed posture instead of preventing falling it really leads to...
decreased joint excursion, stride, and speed
limits ankle movements
increases risk for falling
List the Giants of Geriatrics.
What factors concerning nutrition affect body alignment and exercise?
Vitamin D Deficiency
What are the factors concerning personal values & attitudes that affect body alignment & exercise?
Family values about exercising
Values about personal appearance
FIT: Frequency, Intensity, Time
*professional values– as a nurse if you tell someone to quit smoking, then nurse should be a nonsmoker
What are the external factors affecting body alignment and exercise?
Temperatures & humidity (ex. turn on AC and exercise inside during summer)
Safe, available locations for exercise
What are the prescribed limitations affecting body alignment and exercise?
Immobilized body parts
What are the hazards of immobility?
Affects all body systems
Severity depends on duration of inactivity
Encourage pt movement
Early ambulation after illness and surgery is KEY!
What are the musculoskeletal changes with immobility?
Joint stiffness and pain
This is caused by decrease in muscle use.
This is permanent flexion and fixation of joint in nonfunctional position.
This is bone demineralization, in which Ca from the bone is released into the blood.
Patients with neuromuscular problems have an increase in...
atrophy and contractures
Contractures are found mostly in the...
legs because they are heavier to move.
What happens to our feet when we are on bedrest for a long time?
How can we prevent foot drop in our pts on bedrest?
Put sneakers on or other devices.
What are some interventions for the musculoskeletal system?
Positioning in bed for proper body alignment– use pillows or wedges
ROM at least 3-4 times/day
Incorporate Active ROM in ADLs
Physical therapy consult for individualized exercise programs
Hand Rolls or hand wrist splints
List some devices used for helping those on bedrest.
loose linens over feet
What are the cardiovascular changes with immobility?
Diminished cardiac reserve
Orthostatic hypotension (postural hypotension)
Venous dilation and stasis, edema
Increased Valsalva maneuver
A resting HR that increases 4-15BPM and there's a decrease in coronary blood flow, this is...
diminished cardiac reserve
When the systolic BP decreases more than 20mmHg, and HR increases more than 20 BPM, there's dizziness with position change from lying to sitting to standing, this is...
An elderly HR of 120 or higher can lead to...
When a patient is on bedrest the blood is...
static, there's no circulation, can lead to DVT
How do we lower our risk for DVTs?
Calf pumps, foot circles, hip rotation, knee flexion
No crossing legs, sitting long periods, tight clothing