Virology

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Author:
julieaburch
ID:
47707
Filename:
Virology
Updated:
2010-11-06 17:03:45
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Virology
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Virology
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  1. Mature infectious particle
    Virion
  2. What are the characteristics of naked viruses?
    • All are icosahedral
    • R to organic solvents and chlorination
    • Induce lysis of host cell
    • Nucleocapsid proteins mediate attachment
    • PAP PiCs Reo
  3. What are the characteristics of enveloped viruses?
    • Icosahedral, helical, or complex
    • "Ether sensistive"
    • Budding instead of lysis
    • Chronic infections
    • Envelope glycoproteins mediate attachment
  4. Naked DNA viruses
    • Papovaviruses (Papilloma & Polyoma)
    • Adenoviruses
    • Parvoviruses (single-stranded)
  5. Naked RNA viruses
    • Picornaviruses (RNA +)
    • Reoviruses (double capsid)(RNA +/-)
  6. Double-Stranded DNA viruses
    • Hepadnaviruses
    • Herpesviruses
    • Poxviruses
  7. Enveloped RNA+ Viruses
    • Coronaviruses
    • Flaviviruses
    • Togaviruses
  8. Enveloped +RNA via DNA Viruses
    Retroviruses
  9. Smallest DNA virus
    Parvovirus
  10. Largest DNA virus
    Poxvirus
  11. Smallest RNA virus
    Picornavirus
  12. These require a "helper virus" to provide a function missing due to mutation (example: Hepatitis D)
    Defective Viruses
  13. Infectious particles composed solely of protein; "slow" diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies)--> Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Scrapie in sheep; Resistant to inactivation by UV, heat, formaldehyde; Becomes infectious by conformational change; No immune or inflammatory response
    Prions
  14. Viral Life Cycle:
    • Recognition
    • Attachment
    • Penetration
    • Uncoating
    • Synthesis of Macromolecules
    • Assembly
    • Release
  15. Early mRNAs are synthesized for what type of proteins?
    enzymes/control proteins
  16. Late mRNAs are synthesized for what type of proteins?
    Structural proteins
  17. All DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus except _____?
    Poxvirus
  18. Which viruses carry own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in virion itself?
    • Reovirus
    • Rhabdovirus
    • Paramyxovirus
    • Orthomyxovirus
  19. What occurs within the Eclipse Period of the Viral Growth Curve?
    • Begins with uncoating
    • No detectable virus
    • NA replication and detection
    • Detectable intracellular virus
  20. What is the Rise Period of the Viral Growth Curve?
    Time it takes to release all of the virus
  21. This is the replication mode for phages; aka "temperate cycle"; "lytic" phase induced by UV light, etc.;
    • Lysogeny
    • (Lysogenic conversion-source of exotoxins)
  22. True or False:
    Disease often results as much from the immune response as from the pathogen's intrinsic virulence
    True
  23. Infection followed by resolution and temporary or lifetime immunity. (Example: Rhinovirus; Hep A)
    Acute Infection
  24. What is an example of an acute infection?
    • Rhinovirus
    • Hep A
    • Measles
  25. Infection characterized by periods of latency and recrudescence (Example: Herpes)
    Chronic Infection
  26. Give an example of a chronic infection
    • Herpes
    • Varicella (chickenpox)
    • Zoster (shingles)
  27. Infection where there are no apparent periods of latency. Virus replication is detectable for life of the organism (Example: HIV-1; HCV)
    Persistent Infection
  28. Give an example of a persistent infection
    • HIV-1
    • HCV
    • Herpes simplex
  29. ______ of cells resulting in virus-induced tumors (Example: EBV, HTLV-1, HCV, HPV)
    Transformation
  30. Give an example of a transformation of cells resulting in virus-induced tumors
    • EBV
    • HTLV-1
    • HCV
    • HPV
  31. What are the four major pathogenetic pathways induced by viral infections?
    • Acute infection
    • Chronic infection
    • Persistent infection
    • Transformation of cells resulting in virus-induced tumors
  32. What are some human-specific viral infections?
    • Yellow fever
    • HIV
    • Measles
    • Polio
    • Smallpox
  33. Steps in Viral Pathogenesis (5):
    • Entry and primary replication
    • Viral dissemination and tissue tropism
    • Cellular injury and clinical illness (direct and indirect effects)
    • Virus shedding and host-host spread
    • Host immune response and recovery from infection
  34. True or False:
    An initial round of replication usually occurs at the site of entry
    True
  35. By which route do most viruses enter?
    Respiratory (mucosal)
  36. List examples of viruses that enter through the respiratory (mucosal) route
    • Influenza
    • Measles
    • Mumps
    • Rubella
  37. What is the second most common route of entry for viruses?
    Alimentary (mucosal) (gut)
  38. Name some viruses that enter through the alimentary route
    • Rotavirus
    • Polio
    • Herpes simplex
  39. List some viruses that enter through the genitourinary tract (mucosal)
    • Herpes
    • HIV
    • HPV
  40. List some viruses that enter through the Ocular (mucosal) route
    • Herpes
    • Adenovirus
  41. By what methods can viruses enter through the skin?
    • Trauma (herpes, HPV)
    • Injection (hepatitis, HIV)
    • Bites (Vectored) (rabies, arboviruses)
  42. What is the most common mechanism of subject-caregiver or caregiver-subject transmission?
    Parenteral or iatrogenic
  43. What is a primary barrier to respiratory infection?
    Cilia
  44. How do viruses that enter through the alimentary system generally spread?
    As a result of fecal-oral contamination
  45. What is the main immunoglobin found in mucosal secretions (tears, saliva, intestinal "juice", etc.)? It is resistant to degradation, so can survive in harsh environments (digestive and resp. tracts). Provides protection against microbes that multiply in body secretions. Can opsonize or neutralize virus
    Secretory IgA (sIgA)
  46. Tissue tropism is dictated by the presence of _________ for the virus
    receptors
  47. A virus which is capable of infecting nerve cells, or which does so preferentially. Often hematogenously spread to CNS (Polio, HIV-1)
    Neurotropic Virus
  48. Virus that is capable of entering or infecting the CNS but may or may not cause disease there (mumps paramyxovirus)
    Neuroinvasive Virus
  49. A virus that causes disease within the nervous system (rabies)
    Neurovirulent Virus
  50. Consquence of an acute infection for the cell?
    Progeny release, cell dies
  51. Consequence for a persistent (chronic) infection for the cell?
    Progeny release, cell lives --> may be associated with development of cancer
  52. True or False:
    Shedding is often via the route of initial exposure
    True

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