Philosophy Exam 3
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Philosophy Exam 3
Kant Mill Plato Satre Ethics essay
Philosophers and what they believed. For an essay exam.
Unjust person worsens if never caught.
Unjust person is made good when caught and punished.
"The gentler element is liberated", "brutal part is silenced".
Personal integrity is needed to act good.
Reason controls wills and desires, so reason is most important.
2 types of pleasure:
-Mental– highest quality, long-term (imagination, moral sentiments, intellectual life)
-Physical– lower quality, short-term (sex, money, food/water, shelter)
Utilitarian perspective (greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people is the best choice)
A moral person posses goodwill (good, unselfish intentions).
A person of goodwill always acts out of duty.
Duty is the necessity of an action executed out of respect for law.
Choose for mankind.
Set and example of the ideal person through one's actions.
One should live according to one's values and be authentic.
Freedom implies responsibility
Being true an transparent (honest) to oneself
Double-dealing, lying to oneself
Benevolence Principle (which philosopher?)
(Mill) An act is right if it promotes the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people.
By Mill's definition, happiness =
Pleasure, avoidance of pain
Plato's health metaphor:
Goodness is to justice as health is to the body. Bad actions= corruption as disease= harm to body
Plato: To be a moral, just person one must have balance of–
Reason, Wills, and Desires
Hedonism (which philosopher?)
(Mill) Pleasure is the highest good.
Categorical Imperative (which philosopher?)
(Kant) A way of evaluating motives for an action.
: reason behind action
: logical consistency
: more reliable, not capricious
Practical Imperative (which philosopher?)
(Kant) Don't use people in order to obtain your goals or seek and edge or unfair advantage.
2 paragraphs in section 1; 1 paragraph per point made
2 paragraphs in section 2; 1 paragraph per reason given