Lecture 4 - Fear and Anxiety

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Lecture 4 - Fear and Anxiety
2010-03-15 14:07:27
Psyc 153 Midterm 1

Psyc 153 Lecture 4
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  1. Fear can be a...
    • fxn and dysfxn
    • physical and phsycological
    • appraisals can change the way you experience fear
  2. Fear vs. anxiety
    much overlap but the diff might be:

    • fear:escape to avoid threat
    • anxiety:lacks clear enternal threat, may be undirected fear, may include other emotions as well
  3. Biological preparedness
    • come into the world to be predisposed to fear certain stimuli
    • need very little exposure to feel this fear
    • not necessarily innate releasers (min. exposure to environment)
    • need min expo. –> quickly learn fear
  4. Rheus Monkey Study (Mineka)
    • Study 1 Results: strong fear to snake-like objects
    • Study 2 Results: Monkeys learned to be scared at a fear-relevant stimuli and NOT to the fear-irrelevant stimuli
  5. Conclusion fo Mineka's study
    • fear can be learned thru modeling and observational learning
    • certain stimuli readily become feared
    • pre-wired tendency may focus attention on relevant varaibles
  6. Is agoraphobia a simple phobia?
  7. Is social anxiety a simple phobia?
  8. Simple phobia
    • fear of particular object or situation (animals, heights, closed spaces)
    • exposure of the stimuli almost ALWAYS produces fear
    • fear varies with distance
  9. When is it a disorder?
    • causes severe distress
    • markedly interferes with your life
  10. Panic disorder with agoraphobia
    • ppl with no apparent reason have panic attacks
    • pounding heart, nausea, dizzyness, sweating
    • dreading of somethingintense dread, terror
    • suddent onset that lasts min.
  11. when is a panic attach a disorder?
    • at least 4 attacks in 4 weeks
    • unpredictable onset of panic attacks
    • not linked with specific stimuli or situation
  12. what do ppl with PD w/ agoraphobia avoid?
    • situations where they could not get help if attack occurs
    • the escape would be socially embarrassing
    • more common in females
  13. Where does the initial unexpected attack usually occur?
    • often in public, oftern under conditions of chronic anxiety
    • fear further stimuli and avoid certain stimuli
  14. social phobia
    fear of behaving in an embarrassing fashion in front of others
  15. when is it a phobia?
    interferes with normal routine
  16. Social phobia vs anxiety
    • Social phobia ppl would rather go out if they know they will not see anyone
    • Ppl with anxiety attacks fear not being with someone else
  17. GAD
    • excessive and unrealistic unrealistic worry and anxiety about 2 or more life circumstances
    • occur more than 6 month period
  18. Signs of GAD
    • trembling
    • sweating
    • jittery
    • restlessness
    • shortness of breath
  19. Limbic system
    • thalamus
    • amygdala
    • hypothalamus
    • hippocampus
  20. Hypothalamus when intact or with lesions
    • when intact: coordinated rage rxn in cats when provoked, organized rage display
    • with lesions: unorganized rage rxn but still shows rage rxn
  21. hippocampus is mostly involved
    • with memory
    • located in temporal lobe
  22. LaDoux's dual pathways
    • neuroanatomical support for 2 pathways
    • high vs low road to emotional rxn
  23. the "low road"
    • emotional rxn precede cognitive analysis of N stimuli
    • direct shorter path
    • rough approximation due to speed
    • crude info
  24. the "high road"
    • emotional rxn are based on apprasials
    • takes longer
    • override direct pathway
    • detail accurate of world
  25. Fear and the amygdala
    • Amygdala not necessary for subject to feel fear
    • necessary fir aversive conditioning
    • cannot learn new fears
    • also involved w/ recognition of fearful faces