Lecture 4 - Fear and Anxiety
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Fear can be a...
- fxn and dysfxn
- physical and phsycological
- appraisals can change the way you experience fear
Fear vs. anxiety
much overlap but the diff might be:
- fear:escape to avoid threat
- anxiety:lacks clear enternal threat, may be undirected fear, may include other emotions as well
- come into the world to be predisposed to fear certain stimuli
- need very little exposure to feel this fear
- not necessarily innate releasers (min. exposure to environment)
- need min expo. –> quickly learn fear
Rheus Monkey Study (Mineka)
- Study 1 Results: strong fear to snake-like objects
- Study 2 Results: Monkeys learned to be scared at a fear-relevant stimuli and NOT to the fear-irrelevant stimuli
Conclusion fo Mineka's study
- fear can be learned thru modeling and observational learning
- certain stimuli readily become feared
- pre-wired tendency may focus attention on relevant varaibles
Is agoraphobia a simple phobia?
Is social anxiety a simple phobia?
- fear of particular object or situation (animals, heights, closed spaces)
- exposure of the stimuli almost ALWAYS produces fear
- fear varies with distance
When is it a disorder?
- causes severe distress
- markedly interferes with your life
Panic disorder with agoraphobia
- ppl with no apparent reason have panic attacks
- pounding heart, nausea, dizzyness, sweating
- dreading of somethingintense dread, terror
- suddent onset that lasts min.
when is a panic attach a disorder?
- at least 4 attacks in 4 weeks
- unpredictable onset of panic attacks
- not linked with specific stimuli or situation
what do ppl with PD w/ agoraphobia avoid?
- situations where they could not get help if attack occurs
- the escape would be socially embarrassing
- more common in females
Where does the initial unexpected attack usually occur?
- often in public, oftern under conditions of chronic anxiety
- fear further stimuli and avoid certain stimuli
fear of behaving in an embarrassing fashion in front of others
when is it a phobia?
interferes with normal routine
Social phobia vs anxiety
- Social phobia ppl would rather go out if they know they will not see anyone
- Ppl with anxiety attacks fear not being with someone else
- excessive and unrealistic unrealistic worry and anxiety about 2 or more life circumstances
- occur more than 6 month period
Signs of GAD
- shortness of breath
Hypothalamus when intact or with lesions
- when intact: coordinated rage rxn in cats when provoked, organized rage display
- with lesions: unorganized rage rxn but still shows rage rxn
hippocampus is mostly involved
- with memory
- located in temporal lobe
LaDoux's dual pathways
- neuroanatomical support for 2 pathways
- high vs low road to emotional rxn
the "low road"
- emotional rxn precede cognitive analysis of N stimuli
- direct shorter path
- rough approximation due to speed
- crude info
the "high road"
- emotional rxn are based on apprasials
- takes longer
- override direct pathway
- detail accurate of world
Fear and the amygdala
- Amygdala not necessary for subject to feel fear
- necessary fir aversive conditioning
- cannot learn new fears
- also involved w/ recognition of fearful faces
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