Plant Biology stems test
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Plant Biology stems test
things on the test about stems
What are the three regions on the stem?
Node Internode Axil
What is a node?
where leaf and stem meet
Where is the internode?
region between nodes
where is the axil?
angle between petiole and stem
What are the three buds?
axillary (lateral) buds, Terminal (apical)buds, Bud scales
where are the axillary or lateral buds located?
in the axils of leaves; on side of stem
where is the terminal bud?
at the tip of the stem
what are bud scales?
they cover and protect buds
what are the four scar tissue on the stems?
bud scale scars, stipule scars, leaf scars, and bundle scars
on a branch how can you tell how old it is?
by counting the number of bud scales on the branch
stipule scars are found how?
a stipules is a paired leaf-like structure found at the base of the leaf.
What is left after a leaf falls?
what three things are there about bundle scars?
1)found within the leaf scars 2) they mark where the vascular bundles were 3) the number or arrangement can be used to identify trees in the winter
What four things about apical meristems?
1.found in terminal and axillary buds,2. surrounded by leaf primordia,3. often protected by bud scars in dormant seasons, 4..found in plant embryo
what three things about primary meristems?
1. prodermis 2. procambium 3. ground meristems
what is pith?
center of the stem, made of parenchchyma cells
What root have piths and do all roots have pith?
1. dicots and no they do not
what is cortex in the stem?
tissue between the epidermis and the vacular tissue
what and where is cortex in the roots?
tissue composed mailiy of parenchyma, located between epidermis and endodermis
secondary tissue ?
produced by the vascular cambium a.xylem and phloem and produced by the cork cambium a periderm
what is herbaceous (Non-Woody) Dicotyledonous Stems?
annuals, mostly primary tissue, and vascular bundles in discrete patches
what are rhizomes stems?
horizontal stems underground, adventitious roots, iris, ferns, and grasses
What are runners/stolons stems?
runners are horizontal stems grow along the soil surface (like strawberry)
stolons grow on top of the ground
What are tubers stems?
proof that it is a stem = "eyes" are leaf scars with axillary buds, like irish potato,,swollen stems
what are bulbs stems?
stem with flesh leaves and adventitious roots at the base/ i.e. hyacinths, lilies, tulips, and onions
what are corms stems?
fleshy stem with papery scale-like leaves like crocus, and gladiolus
what is cladophylls stems?
flattened stems with leaf-like apperance (butchers broom) like asparagus the feathery 'leaves' are cladophylls
What are all other stems?
1. cacti(needles =leaves) 2. spines=modified leaves or stipules 3.tendrils=modified leaves
what does wood=?
secondary xylem tissue
what are the three annual rings in order from xylem?
earlywood, latewood, and climate