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HEPHAESTUS / VOLCANUS, VULCAN
- origin, home town
- what are the 2 versions of his birth
- what type of god (temperment), what does he stand for?
- god of ...
- patron of....
- promoter of ....
- physical characteristics
- husband of ______
- lusted after _____, who was born
GOD OF SMITHS
- - non-Greek Origin. From the island of Lemnos (active volcano - he is also associated with volcanoes, and with the cyclopes who work at the forge in them. Also where he lands when he is cast from heaven, other version falls into sea)
- - 1. Son of Zeus and Hera, son of just Hera
- - serious, stands for art, love
- - god of fire and forge (useful forge - creates important things)
- - patron of metalworkers, smiths
- - promoter of civilization and city life
- - physical deformity, lack of beauty, cripple - 1 version, Hera casts him from heaven b/c of his lameness
- - wife is Aphrodite (contrast)
- - Lusted after Athena (sister) --> chases her, ejaculates on to her leg, she wipes off and throws on ground --> Erichthonius (1st king of Athens) is born
What do Hephaestus, Ares, and Apollo have in common (what do they represent)
Interests of Males, male occupations
What objects does Hephaestus Create?
- - Pandora (out of clay)
- - manacles binding Promethius- ball of unbreakable thread (Ariadne)
Hephaestus - cycle of being cast from olympus
- 1. both parents detest --> thrown down by each of them (2 variants)
- 2. one version, land on lemnos, other version, land in the sea --> rescued by Thetis and the Nereids
- 3. "Return to Olympus" - has to be drunkenly guided back by a satyr
What does Volcanus mean?
ARES / MARS
- incarnation of
- god of
- originates in _____
- common in myth? worshipped a lot?
- who did he have an affair with? What children were produced?
- in what book / which story is the myth found?
- - incarnation of bloodlust: merciless, fearless
- - god of war and battle
- - originates in Thrace
- - few myths, worshipped little
- - no wife
- - affair with Aphrodite; children: Eros (love- Cupid), Harmonia (harmony), Deimos (fear), Phobos (panic)
- - Homer, Oddyssey, book 8: Ares, Aphrodite, and Hephaestus (Heph. catches them in the act)
How important in Roman Culture
HERMES / MERCURY
- root of name / meaning
- what is his function
- protector of (5)
TRICKSTER GOD OF TRAVELERS (foot)
- - herma: stone heap marker
- - herald and messenger of the gods
- - protector of
- 1. travelers
- 2. those living in wilderness (Arcadia)
- 3. shepherds and flocks
- 4. merchants and thieves
- 5. heralds
- - Psychompompos - "soul guide" - guide souls to underworld.
- - Argeiphontes - "slayer if Argus" - one of his most famous deeds was to slay a hundred-eyed monster named Argus, whom Hera sent to watch over Io (one of Zeus' mistresses).
symbols of Hermes (3)
- 1. pedastus (traveller's hat)
- 2. caduceus (herald's wand)
- 3. winged sandals
Hermes is similar to which god?
Apollo - brothers, Hermes steals his cattle as a baby, but then gives him the lyre.
Homeric Hymn to Hermes
- - Maia - his mom
- - Pieria, Alpheus River
- - Cyllenian Hermes (from mount cyllene, in Arcadia)
Offspring of hermes
Pan (goat)"the feeder" (represents his concern for pastures and fertility
Affairs of Hermes (2)
Syrinx - nymph he pursued, she turns into a reed, he slashes the reeds looking for her --> fashions the pan pipes
Echo - attendent of Hera that Hermes loved. She would keep Hera occupied while Zeus is cheating. Hera gets mad and decrees that she cant speak (start her own sentence) - only mimic what other people say --> "Echo"