APUSH Unit 2

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APUSH Unit 2
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  1. ● John Adams-
    A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. He was a committed Federalist. He believed in a vigorous national government, was appalled by the French Revolution, believed in an stable elite class to balance the popular democracy. In 1796, Adams later served as the second President of the United States, winning by three votes over Jefferson.
  2. ● Abigail Adams-
    Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the home front. She urged her husband to remember America’s women in the new government he was helping to create.
  3. ● Mercy Otis Warren-
    A 19th century American historian who, in 1805, wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution, which created a Jeffersonian (anti-federalist) interpretation of the Revolution. She was also America’s first female playwright, writing anti-British propaganda plays prior to the Revolution.
  4. ● Edmund Burke-
    (1729-1797) A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' grievances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He later opposed the French Revolution. He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal of the highest order." He has generally been viewed as the philosophical founder of modern conservatism. He supported the American Revolution.
  5. ● Lafayette-
    Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
  6. ● Benedict Arnold-
    He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history, and his name is used as a synonym for traitor.
  7. ● John Paul Jones-
    (1747-1792) Revolutionary War naval officer. Jones was the first man to be assigned to the rank of 1st Lieutenant in the Continental Navy on December 7, 1775. Captain Jones' Ranger became the first American Navy vessel to be saluted by the French. While on the Ranger, he captured the English ship Drake. This was one of the American’s Navy’s few significant victories, and it showed the British Navy was not invincible. Ranger’s victory became an important symbol of the American spirit and served as an inspiration for the permanent establishment of the American Navy after the Revolution. Jones is known as the Father of the American Navy. In 1779, his ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis.
  8. ● French Alliance of 1778
    – reasons for it- The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain’s rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
  9. ● Major battles – Saratoga and Valley Forge-
    In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777, at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North. Valley Forge was not a battle; it was the site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777- ’78, after its defeats at the Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress if necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania after the British capture of Philadelphia. The Battle of Saratoga convinced the French to ally with America.
  10. ● Yorktown, Cornwallis-
    Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the northern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
  11. ● Treaty of Paris –
    1783- Between US and Great Britain. Signed by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay (representing the United States) and David Hartley (representing the Crown). This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. It gave US fishermen access to waters off Newfoundland, and said British forces would leave America ASAP. Agreed that prewar debts would remain valid. Also gave Spain Florida.
  12. ● Negotiators – Franklin, John Adams, John Jay-
    They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783. They ignored Congress’s instructions to follow French advice, and made their own peace agreement with a very generous Britain.
  13. ● Social impact of war-
    The Revolutionary War saw the emergence of the first anti-slavery groups, and many of the northern states abolished slavery after the war. Women gained a small status increase for their efforts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers of future patriots. Began Republican Motherhood.
  14. ● Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom-
    Written in 1777, passed in 1786 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State. Baptists led the campaign to disestablish the Church of England as the official church, joined by Presbyterians and others during the American Revolution, which over time became a push to provide full freedom of religious belief and practice to all Virginians, including Catholics, Jews, and other people who were not Protestant Christians. Served as a model for the First Amendment.
  15. ● New state constitutions-
    Connecticut and Rhode Island kept their colonial charters, just removing all references to Britain. The biggest concerns were to limit government powers and to make public officials accountable. Massachusetts elected a special convention for the sole purpose of writing its constitution, and popular vote ratified it. Governments became more democratic, assemblies became larger and more representative, and executive branches weakened. Established sovereignty resides in people, written constitutions embody their will, governments must function within clear constitutional limits.
  16. ● Newburgh Conspiracy
    - unrest of officers from American Continental Army in 1783 caused by chronic empty salaries, so they met in Newburgh, NY to address Congress about pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan. The main long-term result was a strong reaffirmation of the principle of civilian control of the military, and it increased Washington's stature as a leading supporter of civilian control.
  17. ● Articles of Confederation – powers, weaknesses, and successes-
    The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles’ weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn’t keep the country united – they couldn’t enforce treaties, raise revenue, support trade, or repay its debts. The Articles’ only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. Because of these weaknesses, the Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
  18. Maryland, cession of western land claims-
    After the Revolutionary War, many states claimed all of the western land between their northernmost and southernmost borders, which meant that many strips of land were claimed by more than one state. Some states had control of western land dating back to their charters, and some didn’t. The Continental Congress was trying to get the states to ratify the Articles of Confederation, but Maryland refused to ratify it until all the states gave up all their western land claims. Maryland held out, and the western land claims were transfered to Congress, which would carve out new states in the Northwest Ordinances.
  19. ● Northwest posts-
    British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory; presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
  20. ● Land Ordinance of 1785
    - Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress had no power to directly tax citizens so raised revenue (for Revolutionary War and public school funds) through land sales in the Northwest Territory; sets up precedence for standard land sale & foundations for land policy until Homestead Act (1862); set up the rectangular grid pattern of settlement of the Midwest demonstrated limited governing powers of Articles, leading up to Constitution; one of few successes of Articles
  21. ● Proposed Jay-Gardoqui treaty 1785 (“Liberty Treaty w/ Spain”)-
    btwn John Jay & Don Diego de Gardoqui; Congress sends Jay to Madrid to try to gain access to MS, instead, treaty guaranteed Spanish exclusive right to sail MS for 25 years in exchange for commercial trade btwn Spanish & Americans; the northern merchants wanted the trade but the south saw it as a betrayal; pissed Congress = increased drama/tension with Spain
  22. ● Northwest Ordinance 1787 (“Freedom Ordinance”)
    - Congress establishes states in the Northwest Territory (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI) in 1787; Provided for the political organization of interior: (first under congressionally appointed officials, then under elected territorial assemblies, and then as new states, equal to the original ones); Prohibited new slaves from coming into the Ohio river Region; sets up precedence of addition of new states rather than expansion of colonies; banning of slaves in territory sets OH River as boundary btwn free and slave pop. (lasting issue = later Civil War)
  23. ● Shays’s Rebellion-
    1786-87: armed uprisings in western MA with Daniel Shays leading angry rebels of poor farmers protesting the crushing taxes/debt and foreclosures of their properties; “acted in Revol. spirit”; Continental Congress authorizied 1300 troops; militia eventually chased them down. Eventually, all were pardoned. This produced fears of rampant Democratic impulse; strong impulse system under the Articles of Confed. &strong impetus for Phila. Convention
  24. ● Annapolis Convention
    - Sept. 1786: meeting in Annapolis, MA to “remedy defects of the federal gov’t” though mainly examined commerce/trade; little accomplished due to lack of representation (only NJ, NY, DE, VA, PA) fueled need to hold bigger meeting that incorporates a broader field of problems ->Philadelphia Convention
  25. ● Noah Webster-
    ”Father of Scholarship and Education.”; his blue-backed speller books taught 5 generations of kids how to read/write; promoted Amer. way of spelling/pronunciation over Brit way; made education more secular.; promoted an “American identity”
  26. ● Philadelphia Convention
    - “Grand Convention”; convention subsequent to Annapolis that took place in Philadelphia from May 25-Sept 17, 1787 that created a new gov’t rather than fixing the previous gov’t (purportedly the intention); G. Washington: elected leader of convention; product of convention: Constitution that governs USA to this day
  27. ● Delegates – Hamilton, Washington, Franklin-
    Franklin(little significance) able to call quarrelling members into account and reinspire their work, assisted with Great Compromise; Hamilton (VERY big Federalist, nationalist): proposed a plan(“British Plan”: bicameral legis. where lower house members change, but upper house & pres. elected for life, state gov’t lost almost all authority) = rejected; Washington = elected pres. of convention, oversaw actions of convention
  28. ● Montesquieu – The Spirit of Laws-
    treatise of political theory published by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in 1748; advocates: constitutionalism, separation of powers, abolition of slavery, preservation of civil liberties and the rule of law, and idea that political and legal institutions ought to reflect the social and geographical character of each particular community; beliefs influenced gov’t that US Constitution establishes
  29. ● Hobbes
    -(1588-1679)Eng. social contract philosopher who believed: all lives are ”nasty, brutish, and short,” humans motivated by self-interested cooperation, and best style of social contract = governed by a absolute sovereign/strong central gov’t; his book Leviathan(1651) laid foundations for many western political policy (esp. US Constitution)
  30. ● James Madison,
    “Father of the Constitution”-(1751-1836); principal author of Constitution of 1787, a top contributor to Federalist Papers (catalyzes ratification of Constitution), responsible for US Bill of Rights & drafted the VA Plan which sets up the 3-branch system of governing we have today complete with a checks-and-balances system to protect people’s rights from government tyranny
  31. ● CT Compromise “Great Compromise of 1787”-
    Created by Roger Sherman and Oliver Ellsworth of CT; compromise reached between large and small states that defines the legis. structure & representation promised for ea. state; proposed a bicameral government that includes a Senate (fixed # of representation) & House of Rep. (representation based on pop.) Said that Senator’s chosen by state legislatures, Representative’s elected publicly. Saved Convention from collapse and defines how the US legislature was structured until 1913 and the 17th amendment.
  32. ● VA Plan
    - bicameral legis: lower house membership in proportion to state population (candidates nominated & elected by the people); upper house membership based on pop. but candidates nominated by state legis & elected by members of lower house; supported by large states(big pop); Called for a President (named by Congress), a national judiciary, and a Council of Revision (to review constitutionality of federal laws) set the basis for discussion for the Convention and became the model for US government,
  33. ● NJ Plan
    -legis proposed by William Patterson of NJ in response to VA Plan; Said amend Articles (give Congress power to tax and regulate commerce) instead of get rid of them; smaller states wanted equal representation in legis. a component of it = used as model for Senate
  34. ● Checks and balances
    -a system to balance powers of ea. branch & ensure that no one branch will abuse its powers (limits powers of another branch): a separation of powers
  35. ● North-South Compromises
    - North: received full federal protection of trade & commerce; South: received permanent relief from export taxes & guarantee that importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus national capital relocated to South.
  36. ● 3/5 compromise
    - 3/5 of a state’s slave population would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives; proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman; encouraged southern states to ratify b/c who wouldn’t join if slavery = abolished and slaves not counted as part of pop.
  37. ● Procedures for amendments
    - 2-part process: proposed then ratified; Proposal through 2/3 each house of Congress or 2/3 state legis; Ratification through 3/4 state legis. vote or state convention; allows for equal say among the states though very time-consuming
  38. ● Beard Thesis
    -(1913) Charles Beard said : Constitution was way for rich (esp. land-speculators) to reverse radical democratic tendencies unleashed by Revolution among the common people; critics replaced thesis with ideological approach (stresses power of ideas, esp. republicanism, in stimulating Revol); starts a legacy of examining the econ. interests of political rich
  39. ● Antifederalists
    - opposed Constitution b/c it gave more power to federal gov’t, less to the states & Constitution did not ensure individual rights; many wanted to keep Articles of Confederation; instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights
  40. ● Supporters of the Constitution
    - Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution. These supporters are important because they shaped America in every way. Their ideas, convictions, and desires are what make America, America. By understanding these supporters, we are able to gain insight into why things were the way they were.
  41. ● Opponents of the Constitution -
    Known as Antifederalists, they were mostly commoners who were afraid of strong central government and being taken advantage of. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams. These men were important because they kept Federalists such as Alexander Hamilton from abusing power and made sure that the Federalists did not get away with radical English-based ideas.
  42. ● Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
    - One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia. Because of Patrick Henry’s opposition to the constitution, Virginia was one of the last states to ratify the constitution.
  43. ● Sam Adams
    – Governor of MA, He was opposed to the Constitution until the Bill of Rights was added, and then he supported it. His influence in Massachusetts created a society strongly opposed to the Constitution. Various rebellions also occurred here because of this opposition as well.
  44. ● George Mason, Bill of Rights -
    Called “Father of Bill of Rights”; He opposed the Constitution because it didn’t protect individual rights. His opposition led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights, which were based on his draft of the Virginia Declaration of Rights. Because of this man, the rights of all American people were preserved and continue to be preserved to this very day.
  45. ● Ratification fights, esp. MA, NY, and VA
    – DE, PA, NJ, GA, and CT ratified first, b/c Federalists were strong there. Massachusetts farmers opposed the Constitution because they felt it protected trade more than agriculture, but Massachusetts became the 6th state to ratify, because federalists agreed to a Bill of Rights. New York was opposed to the Constitution; the Federalist Papers were published there to gain support for it. Virginia and New York would not ratify until the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution. In VA, federalists also spread (false) rumors that staunch Anti-federalist Patrick Henry had changed sides. Because of these colonies, the Bill of Rights was established which has lasted for 300 years and continues to protect our various freedoms.
  46. ● The Federalist Papers-
    Jay, Hamilton, Madison - This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. These essays encouraged states like New York and Virginia to ratify which helped to pass the Constitution
  47. ● "The Federalist, # 10"
    - This essay, by Madison, from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good). This essay convinced a large amount of people that a republic would solve all the problems that a large democracy would have. Says that it’s impossible to get rid of faction, so control its negative effects which is only possible in a republic. By picking apart what the anti-federalists wanted and turning it for their favor, they were able to convince enough people to ratify the Constitution. Without this paper, it might never have happened.
  48. President George Washington
    He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He created the excutive departments (Secretary of State, Treasury, War, and Attorney General). He was against political parties (b/c they were too permanent) and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions. Because of his leadership, a war with England was prevented when Genet convinced the people to attack the English ships. He also kept peace by squashing the Whisky Rebellion and gained respect of many.
  49. ● Judiciary Act, 1789
    - Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
  50. ● Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton
    - A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through high tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey. He proposes that states transfer remaining war debt to Congress. Because of this man, many issues existed in America during the early years. His obsession with English ideals and the wealthy caused many unnecessary arguments.
  51. ● Sec. of State Jefferson
    – 1790-1793, A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton’s ideas. He believed states should be responsible for war debt, supported the French Revolution. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
  52. ● Sec. of War Knox-
    A Revolutionary War hero, Henry Knox had served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part of Washington’s cabinet. 1789, he was the first Secretary of War in the Cabinet of the U.S.; the first to be entrusted with the infant army and navy.
  53. ● Attorney General Randolph-
    Edmund Randolph had been General Washington's aide-de-camp at the outbreak of the Revolution, and served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress and as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788. He submitted the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention. From 1789-1794 he served as U.S. Attorney General, and then succeeded Jefferson as Sec. of State. In 1795 he resigned from office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington’s administration against Great Britain, although his name was eventually cleared by the French government.
  54. ● Hamilton’s Program: ideas, proposals, reasons for it-
    Designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.’s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton wanted to increase the power of the national government and cultivate a strong relationship between the rich and Congress.
  55. ● Tariff of 1789
    - Designed to raise revenue for the federal government and protect the domestic manufacturing from foreign competition, resulted in a government surplus. Helped to decrease the national debt. Helped northern merchants, harmed Southern farmers by making foreign-made products more expensive. This factor was one of the major causes of the Civil War.
  56. ● Bank of the U.S.-
    Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed. Established in 1791 (chartered for 20 years), the bank was a powerful private institution, of which the government would be the major stockholder and in which the federal Treasury would deposit its surplus money. The bank served as a convenient strongbox, and it also helped stimulate business through the federal funds by keeping the money in circulation. Its purpose was to establish financial order, establish foreign and domestic credit, and to resolve the issue of the Continental.
  57. ● National debt, state debt, foreign debt -
    The U.S.’s national debt included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton’s program attempted to help pay off these debts.
  58. ● Excise taxes
    - Indirect taxes placed on manufactured products, which raise the prices of the products to cover the tax. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton’s program. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers. This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
  59. ● Report on Manufactures
    - A document submitted to Congress by Hamilton in 1791, which set up an economic policy that scheduled tariffs on European goods to encourage and protect American industry, on bounties to encourage expansion of commercial agriculture, and on federally sponsored internal improvements (ie roads, etc) to stimulate trade and bind the nation closer together. Congress never endorsed this report because it would mess up trade.
  60. ● Implied powers, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause-
    Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers." These unspecified powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers. Of these implied powers included Congress’ justification in establishing the Bank of the U.S.. There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
  61. ● Loose, strict interpretation of the Constitution
    - Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing under the implied powers under the necessary and proper clause. Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do. This theory that the U.S. constitution should be interpreted very literally was preached by Thomas Jefferson; this literal interpretation caused problems for Hamilton, adding to the increasing amounts of loopholes one could find in the Constitution.
  62. ● Location of the capitol: logrolling, Washington D.C., circumstances surrounding it-
    The South was angry that the whole country was assuming state debts incurred primarily in the North, and that slaves were not being counted as full persons for purposes of assigning the number of representatives that each state would have in the House. As part of the Compromise Plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention, it was agreed that the nation’s capitol would be located in the South. Logrolling refers to the practice of representatives or senators exchanging votes for each others' pet bills. Logrolling played a part in locating the capitol at Washington DC, because Hamilton’s proposals passed in exchange for moving the capitol to Washington DC.
  63. ● Major L’Enfant, Benjamin Banneker
    - Architects of Washington, D.C. A friend of Hamilton, L’Enfant asked Washington to be commissioned to plan the city; he was appointed in 1791; he had very grand visions for the capital; as he failed to have his plans published, he was not paid for his work, and died in poverty, although he established the grid like pattern of the city. There is a myth that Banneker reconstructed L’Enfant’s plan from memory, yet there is no evidence to support it. Ben was a free African-American author of almanacs, surveyor, and astronomer.
  64. ● Whiskey Rebellion
    - In 1794, farmers in southwestern Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey (regarded it not as a tax, but a burden upon the economic necessity and medium of exchange); several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion without a fight. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.
  65. ● Washington’s Farewell Address
    • In 1796. Gave four warnings:
    • 1. Stay out of European Affairs;
    • 2. Stay out of permanent alliances (aka Stay Neutral);
    • 3. DON’T create political parties (too permanent, factions instead);
    • 4. Don’t focus on sectional differences (focus on what unites US instead)
  66. ● Election of 1796
    – Adams and Jefferson - The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist (vigourous national gov, hated French revolution, popular democracy balanced by a stable elite), but Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican (alarmed by Hamilton, loved the French commoners). The vote was very close: Adams only won by three votes, and that made Jefferson VP.
  67. ● Federalist and Democratic Republicans
    - The first two political parties. Many of the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members of the Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
  68. ○ Party leaders of Federalists and Republicans
    - The leading Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The leading Democratic- Republicans were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
  69. ○ Programs of federalists and republicans
    - Federalist programs were the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry. The Democratic-Republicans opposed these programs, favoring state banks and little industry.
  70. ○ Philosophies of federalists and republicans
    - Federalists believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution.
  71. ○ Foreign proclivities of federalists and republicans-
    Federalists supported Britain, while the Democratic-Republicans felt that France was the U.S.’s most important ally.
  72. ● Society of Cincinnati -
    A secret society formed by officers of the Continental Army, started by Henry Knox in 1783. The group was named for George Washington, whose nickname was Cincinnatus, although Washington himself had no involvement in the society.
  73. ● Alien and Sedition Acts -
    These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
  74. ● VA and KY Resolutions -
    Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional. Although no one did.
  75. ● Doctrine of nullification -
    Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
  76. ● Election of 1800 -
    The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The Federalists decided to support Burr, as he was less radical than Jefferson. The final decision went the House of Representatives, where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
  77. ● Revolution of 1800 -
    Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution.”
  78. ● Jefferson’s Inaugural Address –
    March 4, 1801, at the Capitol building. Jefferson talked about the principles that would guide his administration: equal justice to all, support of the states, civil over military authority, acquiescence in majority rule, less government spending, honest payment of debt, freedom of press, freedom of person in court. He also spoke of political reconciliation with the Federalists. Most of his short speech was to remind people of everything the Federalists had failed to do. The importance is that the address let everyone know what Jefferson planned to do with his administration. Also, it served to show how different his term would be from the Federalist’s administration.
  79. 12th amendment –
    changed how the President and Vice-President were elected. Instead of having whoever came second in electoral votes be the vice president, the amendment formed separate ballots for the President and VP. Congress passed this to prevent what happened in the 1800 election, where both republican candidates were tied for president. Ratified in 1804. This amendment has defined how every US President and VP has been elected since 1804.
  80. ● 2nd Great Awakening –
    Began in 1790s, it was a surge religious revivalism that swept across US, mostly in Methodist and Baptist churches. Many untrained traveling preachers carried Gospel from place to place, forming tightly knitted networks of believers, which generated sense of social belonging. They emphasized equality of all believers and individual responsibility for one’s own soul. Caused Methodist and Baptist churches to become nation’s largest denominations. Urged people to help others and do good deeds, providing much of energy for reforms like abolition.
  81. Gilbert Stuart –
    American painter from Rhode Island. His best known work is an unfinished portrait of George Washington, which is the image on the dollar bill. Considered one of America’s best portraitists, Stuart painted over 1000 portraits, including the first 6 presidents. He is important because his painting of Washington appears on the front of every dollar bill.
  82. Charles Willson Peale
    – member of PA militia, painter, followed Washington during War. Completed 4 portraits of Washington before the end of the Revolutionary War. He painted other historic people, although he is best known by his many portraits of Washington. His paintings are a source of information about the past.
  83. ● French Alliance of 1778
    France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn’t do anything to help. Because the monarchy was overthrown, the US said the treaty didn’t count anymore, and the US was eventually released from the alliance. The treaty is important because it caused a lot of conflict between the Americans who wanted to help France and the Americans who wanted to remain neutral.
  84. French Revolution –
    Began in 1789, because the French were starving and fed up with the lavish, corrupt aristocrats who wouldn’t feed them. Became a wild chaotic rampage of violence and blood and heads on pikes, because it was not a war of ideas like the American war was, but a war for survival. Turned into this huge war that swept over all of Europe, between France and counterrevolutionary Prussia and Britain. This was important because: Caused trade to go up, as US was neutral and could therefore trade with warring powers. Complicated relations with England, as they started impressing US sailors for their navy. Caused conflict between those who wanted to help France and those who wanted to remain neutral.
  85. ● Citizen Genet
    – minister from French Republic to US, arrived in 1793. He was supposed to get popular support and negotiate a commercial treaty, but he also commissioned American privateers to attack British shipping in the Caribbean and attack Spanish Florida, which violated American neutrality. He urged Congress to reject Washington’s neutrality proclamation and side with France. Soon after that, Washington demanded Genet’s recall. Succeeded in raising popular enthusiasm for France and encouraged the opening of societies like the Democratic Society of PA.
  86. ● Neutrality Proclamation -
    Washington’s declaration in 1793 that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution started a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the French Alliance of 1778. This neutrality failed to keep the US out of the war completely, although it jumpstarted US trade, as neutral countries could trade with warring powers.
  87. ● XYZ Affair, Talleyrand-
    1798 - A three person commission (John Marshall, Charles Pinckney, & Elbridge Gerry) had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the French-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand’s three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe and a large loan to the French government. The Americans did not pay these and two Americans left while one stayed in France to prevent war, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress. This incident caused everyone to start hating the French (before it had been split). Federalists exploited the incident: Sec. of State Pickering wanted to declare war, this was a huge insult to American honor. Adams also became a “hero” and gained a lot of support. This event caused the Republicans to be in disarray- made them very worried about Federalists behavior.
  88. ● Undeclared naval war with France-
    Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had began seizing American vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack any French ships on the American coast. The conflict became especially violent after the X,Y, Z Affair. A peace convention in 1800 with the newly installed dictator, Napoleon, ended the conflict. These “Quasi Wars” caused more Americans to turn against the French, weakening the Republicans and strengthening the Federalists.
  89. ● Convention of 1800-
    A conference between the U.S. and France which ended the naval (Quasi-War) hostilities. Beneficial to France because US could keep supplying them & good for American b/c able to remain neutral & trade with both England & France. It ended all American alliances with foreign nations and got rid of the advantage that the Federalists had after the XYZ affair.
  90. ● British seizure of American ships
    - France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports. Americans are getting upset about this but Washington couldn’t do much b/c he had the dilemma of upholding the country’s neutral rights & protecting its citizens w/o getting drawn into European conflict. People become further aggravated when this issue is not resolved in Jay’s Treaty.
  91. ● "Rule of 1756"
    - A British proclamation that said that neutral countries could not trade with both of two warring nations; they had to chose sides and only trade with one of the nations. This justified Britain’s seizure of neutral American ships during the war between Britain and France in the early 1800s.
  92. ● Northwest posts
    - British fur-trading posts in the Northwest territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts. This issue partially resolved in Jay’s Treaty- British would leave after a year but would still be guaranteed access to fur trade on Am. soil south of Great Lakes. This still causes many American citizens to be upset. Am. government (Federalists) not able to kick the British out, which is something the citizens wanted to happen.
  93. ● Jay’s Treaty-
    1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain, many of which stemmed from Revolutionary War, particularly: continued British occupation of western posts, interference w/ American neutral shipping, & impressment of American seamen. Chief Justice John Jay returned home w/ treaty in which almost none of issues were resolved. It dealt with the Northwest posts (British would leave BUT after another year AND they had to be guaranteed access to fur trade on Am. soil south of Great Lakes), failed to get compensation for American slaves taken by British at end of Rev. War, nor would British promise to stop taking Am. sailors, compromise on neutral rights, or agree to open Brit West Indies to Am shipping. Barely ratified by Senate. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals. This treaty caused the public to become more upset with the government (Federalist dominated) and was a reason for the Undeclared Naval War with France.
  94. ● Pickney’s Treaty (San Lorenzo)-
    1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi River and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans for 3 years. Negotiated by Thomas Pinckney. Spain for the first time recognized US’s boundaries under the peace treaty of 1783 (MS River to the west & 31st parallel to the south) and thus gave up all claim to US territory. This showed that the government was still able to accomplish some things, so the American people didn’t lose all hope in gov. The recognition of US by the Spanish also symbolizes how America is being seen as a more permanent figure.
  95. ● "Mad" Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers-
    Wayne had been one of the leading generals of the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the early 1790's, the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. In 1792, Washington called on Wayne to build a new army against the Indians. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Blue Jacket’s tribes, some Delaware Indians and the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
  96. ● Treaty of Greenville, 1795-
    Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes (the Western Confederacy) gave the Americans (represented by Wayne) the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for payment of goods. The Natives followed the treaty’s terms; the Americans did not. More room for American expansion w/o having to worry about the Indians.
  97. ● Barbary pirates-
    The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean.They would have began attacking American ships in 1783, after the US lost French protection. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute (because he said it was encouraging them), and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.

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