Biochem lecture 32
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Transport of ammonia to the liver is mostly in the form of _____ or ______.
Glutamine or alanine
_____ ______ is responsible for te synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and NH3
glutamate is synthesized by the _____ amination of __________ catalyzed by glutamate dehydrogenase.
Glutamate arises from __________ reactions with the amino nitrogen being donated by a number of different _____ _____.
- amino acids
Glutamine is produced from glutamate by the direct incorporation of _______; which can be considered a ____ _____ reaction.
Role of glutamine is to carry ammonia from ______ _____ to the ____ where it is converted to ammonia by ________.
- Peripheral tissues to the liver
Second mechanism of ammonia transport is by
pyruvate is transaminated to form _____
Synthesis of urea requires 5 enzymes
- Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I
- orithinine transcarbomoylase
- argininosuccinate synthetase
- agrininosuccinate lyase
Carbomoyl phosphate is the ______ and is inside the ______.
- Rate limiting step
arginine is an allosteric _____
There are _#_ ATPs used in the urea cycle.
OTC is for the formation of
- Transamination to aspartate
- Conversion into glucose by gluconeogenic path
- condensation with acetly-CoA to form citrate
- Conversion to pyruvate
Amino group of amino acids are transferred to ________, forming an alpha-keto acid and glutamate via ______.
Glutamate is deaminated to form _______ and to regenerate _____ via glutamine dehydrogenase.
Ammonia and to regenerate a-ketoglutarate
Conversion and elimination of ammonia as _____ via ______ _____ _________ and the urea cycle enzymes.
- Carbomyl Phosphate synthetase
Metabolism of the carbon backbone occurs via the
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