SRB Lab Midterm

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dcmommy13
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47817
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SRB Lab Midterm
Updated:
2010-11-09 12:17:22
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Life University
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Dr. Millman
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  1. Abdominal aneurism:
    "aneurysmal dilatation"
    • >5 mm = medical emergency.
    • Generally increasing 2mm/ year.
    • Calcification in relation to the (hemi)diaphragm:
    • -Above: descending thoracic aorta.
    • -Below: abdominal aorta.
    • Use 3 dots to outline the aneurysm.
    • 50% of plain film radiographs will not show aneurisms.
    • Three signs of rupture:
    • 1. Severe pain: lower abdomen, flank, LB.
    • 2. Tachycardia: 200+ beats/min.
    • 3. Sharp drop in BP.
    • Below the junction of L4/L5 = common iliac A.
  2. Fibrous dysplasia: proximal femur & ribs.
    "Soap bubble lesion"
    • Geographic lesion.
    • Monostotic: one bone, benign.
    • Polyostotic: 2+ bones.
    • -proximal femur & ilium on same side = more likely to be malignant.
  3. Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC):
    "soap bubble lesion"
    • Found in children.
    • Commonly in the posterior spine.
    • Expansile.
  4. Multiple Myeloma:
    See 3 sacral N's on one side, should see 3 on the other side...
  5. Misc:
    • Avascular necrosis...
    • Obliterated Kholer's Teardrop...
    • Chondrocalcinosis: cartilage calcification.
    • Femoral A calcification...
    • Shepard's Crook: greater trochanter level with femoral head, results from all bone softening diseases.
    • Calcification of the ALL: not to be mistaken with intercalary bone (composed of disc material which is not attached).
    • Phleboliths: concretions in veins... clinically insignificant.
    • Bridging osteophyte.
    • Splenic A calcification.
  6. Medullary Bone Infarct:
    • Form of vascular (ischemic, asceptic, osseous) necrosis.
    • Cassion's Disease...
  7. Lytic Mets:
    • Agenessis/pedicle.
    • Decreased definition of iliac crest with multiple lesions.
  8. Paget's Disease:
    "Osteitis Deformins"
    • Cortical thickening = increased size & opaque.
    • Coarsened trabeculation: coarsening/trabeculae. "Trabecular Ascentuation).
    • -Unilateral: US & Canada.
    • -Bilateral: Europe, Australia, etc.
    • Window appearance: squared & oblong.
    • Shepard's Crook: similar to a cane... bowing of femur.
    • Obliterated Kholer's Teardrop ("Brim Sign").
  9. Osteoblastoma:
    • Posterior element of the spine.
    • Compare bilaterally.
    • Soap bubble lesion.
    • Larger & rounder SP.
  10. Increased ADI:
    • Normal: 2.5-3mm.
    • Due to transverse ligament damage or rupture = C1/C2 instability.

    • Posterior atlantao-dental interval: <18mm = spinal stenosis.
    • Anterior soft tissue space between C7 & tetrotracheal line: <22 mm.
    • Space between ant. C2 & retropharyngeal line: <7mm.
    • -greater due to: blood, edema, infection/abscess, SOL.

  11. DISH:
    • 4+ continuous segments without narrowing of the disc space, & without posterior joint fusion.
    • 20% have undiscovered diabetes.
  12. Eagle Syndrome:
    Calcification of the stylohyoid ligament + excruciating pain = CN encroachment associated with ringing of the ears.

    • 1. Eye pain.
    • 2. Head pain.
    • 3. Jaw pain.
    • 4. Ear pain.
    • 5. Neck pain.
    • 6. Throat pain.
  13. Compression Fracture: appears as a small indentation or large dip.
    • Thin end plates = chronic fracture (>6 weeks).
    • Should disappear within 4-6 weeks in adults, 2 weeks in children.
  14. Osteopoikilosis: numerous small opacities found near & in joints.
    • Shoulders, wrist, ankle, knee, SI-joint.
    • Asymptomatic, clinically insignificant.
  15. Avascular Necrosis (AVN):
    "Osteonecrosis"
    "Aseptic necrosis"
    "Ischemic necrosis"
    • Snow capping: increased opacity at the upper part of the femoral head.
    • Radiolucencies in the femoral head.
    • Crescent sign: thin pencil line of radiolucency in close proximity to the top of the femur head.
  16. Sickle Cell Anemia:
    • H-shaped vertebral body.
    • End plates = cod fish vertebrae.
  17. Gall stone:
    • Almost always on the right side, anterior to the spine.
    • Confirmed by lateral film.
    • May develop into cancer.
  18. Cervical rib: joint space presnet.
    Elongated TP: lateral to margin of T1.
  19. Gardner syndrome:
    Malignant soft tissue tumors.
  20. Baastrup's Disease (Syndrome):
    "Kissing Disease"
    • Pain disease.
    • Manifests as sclerosis of end points of SP's.
  21. Non-Ossifying Fibroma:
    • Soap bubble lesion.
    • Longer than it is wide.
    • Eccentric.
    • Loculations: spaces (within tumor).
  22. Hemispheric Spondylosclerosis: helmet dome shaped.
    • Severely degenerated disc.
    • Vaccum phenomenon: dark like with migratory opacity.
  23. Calcification of the Longus Coli Tendon:
    • Under the anterior arch of C1.
    • Due to auto accident.
    • Self resolving condition within 3-4 weeks.
    • Accompanied by pain.
  24. Calcified leiomyomas: fibroids.
    • May bleed.
    • 25% women.
  25. Osteitis Condensans Ilii:
    • Area of ilium that is increased in opacity.
    • Somewhat triangular.
    • Bilateral.
    • Women that have been pregnant 2+ times.
  26. Large osteophytes due to:
    • 1. Psoriatic arthritis.
    • 2. Rieter's Syndrome (reactive arthritis).
  27. Caisson's Disease:
    • Present in individuals that have gone deep sea diving.
    • Results in nitrogen bubbles within the blood vessels.
    • Winds up as infarcts in the bone marrow.

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