PolSci 2

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PolSci 2
2010-01-23 20:39:23
Chapter 5

Civil Rights
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  1. In cases of racial discrimination, the Supreme Court uses the ____________ test.
    strict scrutiny
  2. In 1990, Congress passed the ____________________ which guarantees equal employment rights and access to public businesses for the disabled.
    Americans with Disabilities Act
  3. The Supreme Court has ruled that even illegal immigrants are eligible for all of the following EXCEPT:
    welfare benefits.
  4. What best summarizes the Supreme Courts ruling in Brown v. Board of Education?
    Racially segregated schools can never be equal and therefore violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
  5. For the first hundred years after the ratification of the 14th Amendment, the Supreme Court interpreted the equal protection clause to
    permit a system of segregated social facilities.
  6. Since 1975, Native Americans have successfully
    won the right to speak their own languages; sued the federal government for illegally seizing Native American lands; won federal recognition of their sovereignty.
  7. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited
    discrimination in public accommodations, school segregation, and employment discrimination
  8. Ten years after the Brown decision, about ____________ percent of African American school-age children in the Deep South were attending schools with whites.
  9. Based on Supreme Court rulings, which of the following policies would be LEGAL under federal law?
    This company does not hire homosexuals.
  10. By what year did blacks and women both have the constitutional right to vote?
  11. To draw voting districts so that one group or party is unfairly advantaged is called
  12. By far the most important piece of legislation passed by Congress fostering equal opportunity in the United States was the
    Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  13. Title IX of the 1972 Education Act eventually
    forced schools to take seriously the issue of sexual harassment, forced schools to offer more women's athletics program, and forced schools to accept public money to stop discriminating against women.
  14. What Supreme Court case first restricted the use of racial quotas in university admissions?
    University of California v. Bakke
  15. This constitutional amendment guaranteed voting rights for African American men.
  16. What is the practice of restrictive covenants?
    a type of literacy exam used in the South to keep African Americans from voting
  17. What a type of literacy exam used in the South to keep African Americans from voting?
    Unlike civil liberties, civil rights place positive obligations on the government to take action.
  18. Which court decision established the principle of separate but equal?
    Plessy v. Ferguson
  19. "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex." This is the wording of which amendment?
    There is no such clause in the U.S. constitution.
  20. Legal segregation is called ____________ segregation.
    de jure
  21. What was the Seneca Falls Convention?
    a meeting in upstate New York regarding women's rights
  22. Which constitutional amendment abolished slavery?
  23. What was the Supreme Court's response to the Civil Rights Act of 1875?
    It declared the act unconstitutional because the constitution only protects against acts of private discrimination, not state discrimination.
  24. In Grutter v Bollinger (2003), the Supreme Court ruled that Michigan Law school's affirmative action policy
    was constitutional since race was only used as a plus factor and not a quota.
  25. The practice of financial institutions refusing to lend money for housing mortgages for entire neighborhoods is called:
  26. ____________ is defined as compensatory action to overcome the consequences of past discrimination.
    Affirmative action
  27. In their response to Brown v. Board of Education, southern states did all of the following EXCEPT
    quickly desegregate the schools.
  28. According to the authors of the text, what is the current status of school desegregation?
    The Court has ruled that race cannot be a factor in assigning students to schools to achieve greater racial diversity, so one of the few strategies to promote racial integration has been eliminated.
  29. In what case did the U.S. Supreme Court declare “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”?
    Brown v. Board of Education
  30. When hearing gender-related discrimination cases, the Court uses the doctrine of:
    intermediate scrutiny.
  31. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 attempted to
    protect African Americans from discrimination in public accommodations like hotels and theaters.