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groups of cells with similar structure working together to perform a particular function in the body
What are the types of tissues?
epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle
EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Describe?
covers all of the body that is exposed to the outside. lines digestive tract, respiratory tract, hollow organs and vessels (heart chambers) and forms glands
Glands secreting products outside the body are called?
exocrine glands: have ducts to outside of body
Which tissue covers surfaces and lines cavities?
Epithelial tissues are always attached to?
Describe 4 common traits of epithelia?
- -many cells packed closely together
- -lower surfaces sits on basement membrane. apical surface is on surface of body
- -avascular: doesn't have blood vessels
- -cells divide frequently
What are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells?
Goblet cells producing mucus
What are the 3 shapes of epithelial cells?
squamous, cuboidal, clumnar
What are 2 ways epithelial tissues are classified?
# of layers of cells and the shape of cells
Describe the epithelial cells that make up the epidermis.
stratified squamous attached to a basement membrane of simple cuboidal cells
Name the exocrine glands, where they are and what they secrete.
- -apocrine sweat gland and sebaceous sweat gland in the skin secret sweat and oil
- -Lachrymal glands found in eye cavity to produce tears
- -mammary glands found in breast to produce milk
- -salivary glands found in mouth to produce digestive enzymes
Different Types of Exocrine Glands?
- -serous glands: watery substance produced
- -mucous glands: mucus produced
- -sebaceous glands: waxy, oily secretions produced
Describe Simple Squamous?
flat; can easily be diffused across�in lungs
Describe Simple Cuboidal?
cubes; has more organelles so it can produce secretions�glands
Describe Simple Columnal?
columns; lots of organelles and a little more protections from abrasion than cubes�in digestive tract
Describe Stratified Squamous?
lots of layers; helps in case of abrasion�in skin and mucus membranes inside mouth, esophagus and vaginal lining
CONNECTIVE TISSUE - Describe it?
protects, supports, binds, stores and transports
Classification of Connective Tissue?
- -connective tissue proper: aerolar (fill), fat
- -fluid connective tissue: blood, lymph
- -supporting connective tissue: bone, cartilage, ligament
What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the fetus?
What connects muscles to bones?� What type of tissue is it made of?
tendons and ligaments made of regular dense connective tissue
Cartilage and blood are classified as what kind of tissue?
What are�2 types of fibers in connective tissue we discussed?
- -collagen: white fiber that has tensile strength
- -elastin: yellow fiber that provides elasticity
What type of loose connective tissue is found in the hypodermis?
adipose connective tissue
Describe the components of connective tissue?
- -ground substance: thick, jello like (fat), fluid (blood) or solid (bone)
- -fibers: collagen and elastin
- -cells: fibroblasts/cytes in connective tissue proper, chondroblasts/cytes in cartilage, osteoblast/cytes in bones and hematopoietic stem cells in blood
What makes up the matrix in connective tissue?
ground substance and fibers
SKIN - Body odor results from what?
apocrine sweat gland
What is the last living layer of cells in the epidermis?
What is the location of apocrine glands?
underarms, pubic hair, and
What is the name of the pigment produced in the stratum basale?
What is keratin?
makes skin waterproof
Along with eccrine glands, what actively regulates body temperature?
fat in the hypodermis helps insulate
What fiber gives strength to the dermis?
List 4 functions of skin.
- -temp regulation
- -production of vitamin D
Name 2 types of sudoriferous glands.
eccrine and apocrine..suderiferous just means sweat
What is the name of the specific cells providing immune function in the epidermis? macrophages or langerhans eat foreign invaders
What are the ABCDs of melanomas?
What are 2 other types of skin cancer, besides melanoma?
- basal cell carcinoma
- squamous cell carcinoma
How dangerous are the different types of skin cancer?
- basal cell is most common and least dangerous
- squamous cell carcinoma is more serious because it can spread to other structures but it spreads slowly
- melanoma is the most dangerous because it spreads quickly through the lymph nodes or blood
What causes goose bumps?
arrector pili muscles
What is the rule of 9's?� How is it used?
- It is used in burn patients for determining what % of the body is burned in order to know how much IV saline is needed
- -head front and back = 9%
- -1 arm front and back = 9% x 2 = 18%
- -whole torso front and back = 36%
- -1 whole leg front and back = 18% x 2 = 36%
- -pubic area = 1%
What are the specialized epithelial cells?
- -keratinocytes: produces keratin
- -melanocytes: produces melanin
- -Langerhan cells: macrophages the eat foreign invaders
- -Merkel cells: for sesnsory/touch
What are the layers o the epidermis?
- 1 - stratum corneum: dead cells, flat keratinized, glycolipids in extracellular space
- STRATUM LUCIDUM: only in palms, soles of feet and anterior surfaces of fingers
- 2 - stratum granulosum: cells flattened; organelles deteriorating; cytoplasm full of lamellated granules and keratchyaline granules
- 3 - stratum spinosum : cells contain thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of keratin
- 4 - stratum basal: merle cells
- Then blood supply in dermis (which is connective tissue) and hypodermis which contains adipose tissue
What are the 2 layers of the dermis?
- -papillary layer: closest to epidermis, ridgidy, fingerprints
- -reticular layer: deeper, thickest, stretchy and strong connective tissue with lots of vessels and nerves
What are the epithelial derivatives in the dermis?
- -suderiferious glands: eccrine and apocrine
- -sebaceous gland
How does the skin function in protection?
- -keratinized cells make it waterproof
- -glands (sweat and oil) produce antibacterials and melanin which protects from uv rays
- -macrophages (langerhans) in top layer eat foreign invaders
how does the skin function in temp. regulation?
- specialized neurons detect temp changes and send impulses to the control center/brain.
- -hot-sweat glands produce sweat and blood vessels dilate (red skin)
- -heat stroke: blood volume too low to produce sweat; cook from inside out
- -cold-blood vessels contract (turn blue/black) and goose bumps arise from arrestor pill
How does the skin function in sensation?
touch, pressure, pain, temperature sensors/receptors
How does the skin function in Vitamin D production?
body manufactures the precursor to vitamin D in the blood. UV light needed to activate it into Vit. D.
Describe Stratum Basale?
1 row cuboidal, mostly keratinocytes, 10-15% melanocytes, divide rapidly
Describe Stratum Spinosum?
8-10 layers thick, lots of langerhans, still alive, nutrients diffuse from dermis
Describe Stratum Granulosum?
Keratinization process begins, cells begin to die and fill up with keratin
found only in plans and feet, dead
Describe Stratum Corneum?
outermost layer, dead, flat, keratinized, once a month get new layer
What are bed sores?
- decubitus ulcers - applying pressure continuously cuts of blood supply to dermis causing skin to die.
- Describe the 3 types of burns and what is damaged/destroyed?
- -1st degree: epidermis is damaged
- -2nd degree: epidermis is destroyed, dermis is damaged
- -3rd degree: epidermis and dermis is destroyed, hypodermis damaged
BONE - The name of the shaft of long bones is?
diaphysis made of compact bone (osteons) and contains yellow marrow in medullary cavity
The medullary cavity in adults contains?
yellow marrow which has lots of fat in it. In kids, the marrow is red because they need to produce lots of blood
What are the enlarged end of long bones called?
What is an epiphysis made of?
spongy/cancellous or trabecular bone to help with shock absorption and contains red marrow for hematopoisis
What is the name of the site of growth of long bone?
Describe how bones grow in children?
Through the Epiphyseal or Growth Plate which are 1/4 inch plate of cartilage in epiphysis. It's the site where bones grow longer.
What happens to the epiphyseal plate in adults?
the cartilage becomes bone and so the plate disappears and becomes the epiphyseal line
Name the membrane on the outside of the long bone?
What are the 2 layers of the periosteum?
- outer layer: fibrous connective tissue
- inner layer: osteoblasts and osteoclasts
What is the membrane inside the medullary and haversion canal?
endosteum: inside any hollow opening and has osteoblasts and clasts
Name the types of cells found in bones.
- -osteoblasts: build new bone
- -osteocytes: old bone cells
- -osteoclasts: break down old bone cells to allow room for new bone cells
What are the cells found in lamellae?
- -osteoblasts and osteoclasts live near blood supply on the surface or near the aversion canal
- -find more osteoblasts on outside of ring
- -find more osteoclasts around the inside hole so it can eat up old bone cells
Where would you find osteocytes?
live away from blood supply in little caves called lacunae
List 5 functions of bone.
- -storage of minerals and fat
- -hematopoesis: blood production
Describe the function of support for bone?
skeleton is framework of body, supports softer tissues and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles
Describe the function of protection for bone?
protects internal organs, skull protects brain, vertebrae protecs spinal cord, ribcage protects heart and lungs, reducing risk of injury
What type of growth makes bones bigger around without getting thicker?
appositional growth: medullar cavity (hole) is proportionally growing at the same time as the bone
What is the name of the central canal in an osteon?
Haversian canal which contains nerves, arteries and blood vessels
What is in Haversian canals?
nerves, arteries and blood vessels
Spongy bones are made up of a framework called what?
spongy bones don't have osteons. lamellae form rods/plates called trabeculae which create a thin branch and open network. they are for stress from different angles
Where is spongy bone found?
tops of long bones, sternum, pelvis, in epiphysis
What is in spongy bone?
Where else is red marrow found ?
pelvis, sternum, ends of long bone
What is a lucuna?
a small pit or cavity that osteocytes live in..like a little cave within the lamelli
What is a canaliculus?
canals that connect osteocytes in their lacuna, so that they can communicate with one another
What is a Volkmannas canal?
connect osteons to each other, so blood supply can get to all the different layers of the lamelli
What hormones regulate bone growth?�
- -Calcitonin & parathyroid hormone regulates calcium levels in blood
- -sex hormones
- -growth hormones
Describe how calcitonin works?
- -from thyroid gland in c-cells. Inhibits osteoclast activity, thereby making osteoblasts work stronger.
- -calcium levels in blood rise to high normal, calcitonin released from thyroid, decrease osteoclast activity, blood calcium level goes down to normal.
Describe how parathyroid hormone works?
- from the parathyroid gland which are embedded in thyroid gland, this hormone is released to stimulate osteoclasts
- -calcium levels in blood drop to low normal, PTH released from parathyroid, increases osteoclasts, blood calcium levels go up to normal.
Describe how sex hormones and growth hormone regulate bone growth?
speed process up at puberty but sex hormones can also stop bone growth. certain hi levels of estrogen or testosterone causes the epiphyseal plates to close up.
Where do red blood cells form?
in Trabecular Bone or spongy bone in epiphysis
What are the physicians who specialize in bone called?
How many bones do you have in your body?
What is the connective tissue in bone made up of?
- -fibers (mainly collagen for strength)
- -ground substance (minerals like calcium, phosphorus and magnesium)
- -cells (osteoblasts,cytes,clasts)
What is the bone structure called for long bones?
Describe the structure of an osteon?
- -made up of ground substance and fibers (matrix)
- -made up of layers of tubes called Lamellae
- -made up of osteoblast, cytes, clasts
Describe the different type of joints and their function?
- -synarthroses: together joints, don't move function is to hold joints together, eg. skull
- -amphiarthroses: little movement, eg. vertebral disks, symphysis pubis (bone that holds together pelvic bone)
- -diarthroses: apart joints or synovial joints
Describe the 6 synovial joints?
- ball and socket: most mobile - in shoulder and hip
- hinge: found where ends of bone meet and rotate-in elbow, knee, ankle,fingr
- pivot: allows movement from side to side and up and down -C1atlas, C2axis
- saddle:fits together like a rider in a saddle-in thumb
- ellipsoidal/condyloid - oval face nestles into surface-in fingers/palms and toes with metatarsal bones
- palne/gliding: flattened curves faces- in clavicle/sternum
Bone remodeling performed by?
osteoblasts/clasts, a balance between their activities normally.
What can increase osteoblast activity?
weight bearing exercise
Describe 2 types of ossification of bone?
- -endochondral: means inside cartilage, happens in osteons/compact bone
- -intramembraous: happens inside membrane, end up with spongy bone like the fetus skull grows between 2 membranes or clavicle
Most bones are formed by what kind of ossification?
What are the 2 types of sex hormone?
Estrogen and testosterone which increases osteoblast activity in puberty. lack of sex hormone leads to bone deterioration
What is the cause of giantism?
too much growth hormone
What is the cause of pituitary Dwarfism?
too little growth hormone
What are 3 types of skin cancer?
- basal cell carcinoma
- squamous cell carcinoma
There are no sensory receptors in the epidermis. T or F
What hormone may be used to treat osteoporosis (not estrogen)? Why?
What hormone increases osteoclast activity? What gland does it come from?
calcitonin from the thyroid gland
What is the normal blood level for calcium?
9-11mg or 100ml
What is osteoporosis?
it is brittle bones. as we age, osteoclast activity is greater than osteoblast activity around the age of 34-40.
What are risk factors for osteoporosis?
female, white or oriental, low calcium intake, low vitamin D intake, lack of exercise, smoker or drinker
Describe bone growth at different ages?
- birth to 18: bones grow in length
- up to 35-40: bones grow in density
- after 40: bones density loss
loss of height
What should you eat if you have osteoporosis?
- -vitamin d: helps absorb calcium but too much can stimulates parathyroid hormone to release calcium into the blood
- -vitamin C: for collagen formation
- -vitamin A: for osteoclast activity
- -vitamin k: for collagen formation
What is achondroplasia?
this is not about too much or too little growth hormone. This is about them lacking the cartilage growth along the growth plate. Their torso is a normal size, but their arms and legs are smaller
What is acromegaly?
too much growth hormone after growth plate has already sealed in adulthood. Bigger hands, feet, jaws and brows. Can stimulate existing cancer growth as well as increasing risk of diabetes
What might cause too much growth hormone?
tumor on pituitary gland
Number of bones in?
- cervical - 7 bones
- thoracic - 12 bones
- lumbar - 5 bones
EXAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS - Why wont Lance get osteoporosis?
exercise, good nutrition, man
What are the ABCD of melanoma?
What is the cell responsible for secreting matrix of bone?
What do all epithelial cells have in common?