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What is ageism?
Prejudices and stereotypes that are applied to older people based on age. A way of devaluing older people and not allowing them to be individuals with unique ways of living their lives. Does not exist in all cultures.
What are some common prejudices about old people?
- Old people are sick.
- Old people are forgetful.
- Old people need help.
- Old people live in nursing homes.
- Old people fall down.
- Old people cannot hear.
- Old people just sit around and do not have much fun.
What is elderspeak?
Speech that is modified when talking to an older person. Babytalk.
What are some examples of elderspeak?
slower rate, fewer clauses. more repetition, exaggerated intonation. elevated pitch and volume, more two-syllable words
What is elder's perception of elderspeak?
demeaning, patronizing, implying incompetence, infantizing
What does the Beauty Culture say is required to be a valuable member of society?
Youthful, thin, athletic, symmetrical
What are aging outcomes related to beauty?
- negative - low esteem, questioning worth, depression, social withdrawal
- Positive - less pressure and worry, can be themselves, feel accepted for who they are
What percentage of baby boomers believe that working past retirement age is an ideal plan?
What percentage of baby boomers say they want to go between work and leisure?
What percentage of baby boomers say they want to work part time?
How will baby boomers stay working longer?
make modifications, honor life long achievements, create a sense of community, enhance workplace quality, reinforce feelings of value, adopt phased retirement, support engagement
What is a theoretical framework?
The lens through which the researcher asks questions, analyzes data and reports findings
What are questions to be asked with the review of literature?
- Is it relevent?
- Is it current?
- Is there a gap?
What are questions that should be asked when reviewing the procedure of a study?
- How was the study carried out?
- What was done with the data?
- How was the data analyzed?
- Who was involved?
What is the difference between qualitative instrumentation and quantitative?
- Qualitative - uses interviews, focus groups, ethnographer, focus is on trustworthiness
- Quantitative - surveys, questionnaires, scales, focus is on reliability, validity
What is the relationship between theory, research and practice?
Theory and research inform practice. They improve nursing care, improve patient outcomes and improve health care delivery system
Why do we need research?
To support our interventions
What is an example of research overcoming tradition based practice?
What are the scopes of nursing practice?
- How individuals/families adapt to health and illness
- How the physical, psychological and sociocultural environments affect health and illness
- Physical and interpersonal interventions that assist individuals/families maintain health and manage illness
What is evidence based practice?
A problem solving approach to clinical practice that integrates the use of best evidence in combination with a clinician's expertise as well as patient preferences and values to make decisions about type of care provided
What is the goal of evidence based practice?
improve patient outcomes
What does evidence based practice integrate?
- *A systematic search for and clinical appraisal of the relevant evidence
- *One's own clinical expertise
- *Patient preferences and beliefs
What is the importance of EBP
- *Keeps nursing care current
- *Ensures highest quality of patient care
- *essential for magnet status
- *Ensures reimbursement for nursing services
What are the steps of EBP?
- 1. Ask the burning question
- 2. Collect the most relevent and best evidence
- 3. Critically appraise the evidence
- 4. Integrate the evidence with your expertise, patient preferences and values
- 5. Evaluate the decision or change
What are the levels of evidence in EBP?
- I. Reviews of RCTs, metaanalysis of RCTs or practice guidelines based on RCTs
- II. Evidence from at least one RCT
- III. Well designed controlled trials with randomization
- IV. Case control and cohort studies
- V descriptive and qualitative studies
- VI single descriptive or qualitative studies
- VII Experts in area or reports of expert committees
What is a systematic review?
- A summary of evidence on a particular topic, typically by an expert or expert panel that uses a process of identifying, appraising and synthesizing studies to answer a specific clinical question.
- Eg. Cochrain
What is meta analysis?
a process of using quantatative methods to summarize results from multiple, critically reviewed studies to answer a specific question
What is a RCT
a randomized control trial - one where subjects are randomly assigned to an experemental or control group
What are some ways to critically appraise evidence?
- *Are the results of the study valid?
- *Are the results of the study repeatable?
- * how was the data analyzed?
- *Are the results generalizable to your patients?
- *Do the results fit with previous research in the area?
- *What does this research mean for my patients?
What is the definition of research?
A systematic inquiry or study that validates and refines existing knowledge and develops new knowledge
What are three types of research?
- *Knowledge generating
- *Translational research
- *Evidence based practice
What are three research methods?
- *Triangluation - uses both methods
What is the estimated number of deaths due to medical error?
44,000 - 98,000
What is the major barrier to making progress in safety and quality?
Failure to appreciate the complexity of the work
What are 4 slips that are made that contribute to errors
- *Capture - more frequently used routine takes over
- *Description - right action, wrong object
- *Associative activation - phone when doorbell
- *Loss of activation - forget why
What are factors that divert attention?
What is hindsite bias?
simplifying explanations when something goes wrong after the fact
How has accountability for healthcare workers changed?
From performing perfectly with no errors to speaking out about patient safety issues, voluntarily reporting errors, sharing personal knowledge
What is a second story?
giving details of all aspects surrounding a given situation