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- Chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter
- - Ex: the drug Curare (Muscles are unable to move.)
- Chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
- -Ex: Nicotine
An inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
Refers to the reproductive success (# of descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population.
- - the chemical substances released by the endocrine glands
Bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus calliosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures.
- Portion of the frontal lobe, to the front of the motor cortex
- - reasoning about relations between objects and events.
- - to certain types of decision making
The cerebral hemispheres
- The right and left halves of the cerebrum.
- - separated in the center of the brain by the longitudinal fissure.
The outer layer of the brain, the part that looks like a cauliflower
The seat of complex thought
- Contributes to the modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing, and pain perception
- - best known for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness
Electrical Stimulation of the brain (ESB)
Involves sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it.
- Involves destroying a piece of the brain.
- - procedure involves inserting an electrode into a brain structure and passing a high-frequency electric current through it to burn the tissue and disable the structure.
Efferent Nerve Fibers
Axons that carry info outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body
Afferent Nerve Fibers
Axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
Internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects
Postsynaptic Potential (PSP)
- A voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane.
- -graded, vary in size and increase/decrease the probability of a neural impulse in the receiving cell in proportion to the amount of voltage change.
Positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
Negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials.
- Process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
- - allows synapes to recycle their materials
The neuron that receives the signal
The neuron that sends a signal across the gap
- Minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.
- - Not long only 1 or 2 milliseconds
Very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon.
The resting potential of a neuron
- its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
- -charge is about -70 millivolts
a key process in the formation of the neural networks that are crucial to communication in the nervous system.
- (Computerized tomography)
- -a Computer-enhanced x-ray of brain structure
- (Functional magnetic resonance imaging)
- - Monitors blood and oxygen flow in the brain to identify areas of high activity.
- uses radioactive markers to map chemical activity in the brain
- -provides color-coded map indicating which areas of the brain become active when subjects clench their first, sing, or contemplate the mysteries of the universe.
- (transcranial magnetic stimulation)
- -technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain.
- Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
- - within these buttons; most of these chemicals are stored in small sacs, called Synaptic Vesicles.
The Limbic System
Loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas
- -Back of the head
- The cortical area where most visual signals are send and visual processing is begun.
- - this area is called the primary visual cortex
- -Forward of the occipital lobe
- Includes the area that registers the sense of touch, called the primary somatosensory Cortex
- - also involved in integrating visual input and in monitoring the body's position in space
- -Lies below the parietal lobe
- Contains an area devoted to auditory processing the primary auditory cortex
- -Largest lobe in the human brain.
- contains the principal areas that control the movement of muscles, the primary motor cortex
The endocrine system
- Consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning
- - long-term regulation of basic bodily processes.
Somatic Nervous System
is made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
Autonomic Nervous System
is made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands.
- is a relatively large and deeply folded structure located adjacent to the back surface of the brainstem.
- - Coordination of movement and critical to the sense of equilibrium (physical balance)
- Segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain
- - contains area concerned with integrating sensory processes; vision and hearing
- Largest and most complex region of the brain; encompassing a variety of structures, including the Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic system, and Cerebrum
- -1-4 form the core of the forebrain
A structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex.
- Structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs.
- -lies beneath the thalamus
- -controls the autonomic nervous system
- - regulation of basic biological drives related to survival; fighting, fleeing, feeding, and mating.
Threadlike strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic Acid) molecules that carry genetic information.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission
- Includes bridge of fibers that connects the brainstem with the cerebellum.
- - also contains several clusters of cell bodies involved with sleep and arousal.
- Attaches to the spinal cord
- - has charge of unconcious but essential functions, such as breathing, maintaining muscle tone, and regulating circulation.
- Junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
- - the points at which neurons interconnect
- -region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received
- Cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons
- -smaller than neurons
- -account for over 50% of the brains volume
- -provide insulation around many axon
- -play role in orchestrating the development of the nervous system
Due to a degeneration of myelin sheaths
- Small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters.
- (serve as messengers that may activate neighboring neurons)
- -the axon ends in a cluster of terminal buttons
- Insulating material that encases some axon.
- -axon being a pipe and myelin sheath being the insulation around it.
- Parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
- -info flows into the cell body and then travels away from the Soma along the axon
- -like branches off the end of trees!
- a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma (cell body) to other neurons or to muscles or glands
- -the pipe!
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information
- Cell body, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
- (magnetic resonance imaging)
- uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computerized enhancements to map out brain structure
- - produces 3-dimensional pictures
The degeneration of such neurons apparently causes it, a neurological illness marked by tremors, muscular rigidity, and reduced control over voluntary movement.
- Major structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
- - thick band of fibers
The Pituitary Gland
Releases a great variety of hormones that fan out within the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands.
The Peripheral Nervous System
is made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord
The Central Nervous System
- Consists of the brain and the spinal Cord.
- - lies within the skull and spinal column.
Includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons.