Card Set Information
neuro quiz 3
What disease affects only the motor neurons and spares the entire sensory system and intellect?
What causes the effects of Parkinson's disease?
A low amount of dopamine and a normal amount of acetylcholine
What should be your biggest concern in a patient with myasthenia gravis who is having SOB and difficulty swallowing?
The patient may go into respiratory arrest
What disorder involves temporary paralysis of the face and is characterized by facial droop, ptosis, and facial twitching?
drooping of the eyelid
Which disorder is an inherited muscle disorder in which the male patient gradually loses his ability to walk and most do not survive into their teenage years?
Which type of spina bifida is most common?
What is the term that is used for a local or diffuse change in a patient's muscle tone?
What is primary dystonia caused by?
Damage to the extrapyramidal system
What is primary dystonia as a neurological disorder?
causes involuntary muscle contractions in any part of the body
can force certain parts of the body into abnormal, sometimes painful, movements or postures
What is myoclonus?
describes a symptom, not a disease
refers to sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
Myoclonus can develop in response to what kinds of things?
head injury or SCI
stroke or brain tumors
kidney or liver failure
chemical or drug poisoning
prolonged oxygen deprivation
Define peripheral neuropathy.
diseases or disorders that affect the peripheral nervous system (spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves)
What are some causes of peripheral neuropathy?
dietary deficiencies especially B vitamins
What is spina bifida?
congenital defect that stems from incomplete development of brain, spinal cord, and/or meninges
What are the 4 types of spina bifida?
What is occult spina bifida?
most common form
spinal cord and surrounding structures remain inside body
could be completely asymptomatic for their whole life
sometimes see a little tuft of hair at the base of the spine
What is meningocele spina bifida?
fluid filled sac outside the body but there are no nerves or cord parts in it
translucent sac- look in it to ensure no tissue
protect it- put the baby on their tummy
not usually a lot of deficits from this but there can be
What is myelomeningocele spina bifida?
cord and nerves outside of body
What are the SXS of myelomeningocele spina bifida?
loss of sensation below the deficit
problems with bowel and bladder
often seen with hydrocephalus
What is encephalocele spina bifida?
protrusion through the skull with brain tissue inside
put them on their side
What is cerebral palsy?
congenital motor impairment disorder (non-progressive)
What are the four major classifications of cerebral palsy?
What is spastic paralysis cerebral palsy?
most common form
increased muscle tone
damage is in motor cortex itself
can be para, quad, or diplic
What is dyskinetic cerebral palsy?
2nd most common form
basal ganglia and extrapyramidal system are affected
fine motor is mostly affected
What is ataxic cerebral palsy?
cerebellum is affected
least common form
What is mixed cerebral palsy?
combinations of the other types
What common problems do all types of cerebral palsy share?
What is Bell's palsy?
sudden temporary facial paralysis due to inflammation to CN VIII (Facial)
What are the SXS of Bell's palsy?
mild weakness to total paralysis
Pain due to damage or irritation of a nerve
What is trigeminal neuralgia?
damage to CN V causes pain limited to the face but there is no motor involvement
What is glossopharyngeal neuralgia?
compression of CN IX due to inflammation causes severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils
difficulty swallowing can occur
can be life threatening if pressure starts to compress the brain stem
a tumor on nerve cells
What is acoustic neuroma?
a benign neoplasm compresses cranial nerve VIII and causes symptoms (can involve VII and V also)
What are the SXS of acoustic neuroma?
unilateral hearing loss (differentiating from Meniere's)
fullness in the ear
What is Parkinson's disease?
progressive neurologic disease that affects the basal ganglia (and therefore fine motor control) due to an imbalance between low dopamine and normal ACH
What are the SXS of Parkinson's disease?
Tremors that occur at rest
How is Parkinson's treated?
What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?
ALS or Lou Gherig's disease; caused by the neurons in the mortor cortex and spinal cord wasting and hardening and becoming non-functional
Affects voluntary skeletal muscle
Does not affect intellect
Starts in a specific isolated area and then progresses throughout body, causing paraplegia and eventually death (paralysis of diaphragm)
What is muscular dystrophy?
refers to a group of motor neuron genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles
What is the most common form of MD?
Duchenne's; affects males primarily
involves the deficit of dystrophin protein that starts killing muscle and replacing it w/ connective tissue; usually can't walk by age 12
What is multiple sclerosis?
thought to be an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system
involves destruction of CNS myelin (demyelination) of the white matter of the brain
most common acquired disease of the nervous system in young adults, more women than men
does not affect intellect
What are the SXS of multiple sclerosis?
blurred or double vision
facial numbness or pain
What is Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS)?
autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves and sometimes cranial nerves
exact cause is unknown but could be viral infections or immunizations
causes damage to myelin sheaths
What are the SXS of Guillian-Barre syndrome?
progressive muscle weakness
can affect ANS-swallowing and respiration
What is myasenthia gravis?
chronic autoimmune disorder that destroys ACH receptor sites at neuromuscular junctions
prevents nerve impulses from reaching the muscles
weakness and rapid fatigue occurs in affected muscles
When does myasenthia gravis usually affect females?
When does myasenthia gravis usually affect males?
What are some SXS of myasenthia gravis?
difficulty swallowing and chewing
weakened respiratory muscles
difficulty with extremity movements
What is a myasthenic crisis?
Severe muscle weakness involving respiratory insufficiency
Problem here is respiratory arrest
What is a cholinergic crisis?
associated with myasenthia gravis
anticholinergic drug toxicity causes SLUDGE symptoms along with symptoms of myasthenic crisis
the muscles stop responding to ACH and can lead to paralysis of respiratory muscles