Neuroquiz3flashcards.txt

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Neuroquiz3flashcards.txt
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neuro quiz 3
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  1. What disease affects only the motor neurons and spares the entire sensory system and intellect?
    ALS
  2. What causes the effects of Parkinson's disease?
    A low amount of dopamine and a normal amount of acetylcholine
  3. What should be your biggest concern in a patient with myasthenia gravis who is having SOB and difficulty swallowing?
    The patient may go into respiratory arrest
  4. What disorder involves temporary paralysis of the face and is characterized by facial droop, ptosis, and facial twitching?
    Bell's Palsy
  5. Define ptosis.
    drooping of the eyelid
  6. Which disorder is an inherited muscle disorder in which the male patient gradually loses his ability to walk and most do not survive into their teenage years?
    Muscular dystrophy
  7. Which type of spina bifida is most common?
    Occult
  8. What is the term that is used for a local or diffuse change in a patient's muscle tone?
    Dystonia
  9. What is primary dystonia caused by?
    Damage to the extrapyramidal system
  10. What is primary dystonia as a neurological disorder?
    • causes involuntary muscle contractions in any part of the body
    • can force certain parts of the body into abnormal, sometimes painful, movements or postures
  11. What is myoclonus?
    • describes a symptom, not a disease
    • refers to sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
  12. Myoclonus can develop in response to what kinds of things?
    • infection
    • head injury or SCI
    • stroke or brain tumors
    • kidney or liver failure
    • chemical or drug poisoning
    • prolonged oxygen deprivation
  13. Define peripheral neuropathy.
    diseases or disorders that affect the peripheral nervous system (spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves)
  14. What are some causes of peripheral neuropathy?
    • diabetes
    • dietary deficiencies especially B vitamins
    • alcoholism
    • uremia
    • leprosy
    • lead poisoning
    • drug intoxication
    • viral infection
    • rheumatoid arthritis
    • lupus
    • malignant tumors
    • lymphomas
    • leukemias
    • inherited neuropathies
  15. What is spina bifida?
    congenital defect that stems from incomplete development of brain, spinal cord, and/or meninges
  16. What are the 4 types of spina bifida?
    • occult
    • meningocele
    • myelomeningocele
    • encephalocele
  17. What is occult spina bifida?
    • most common form
    • spinal cord and surrounding structures remain inside body
    • could be completely asymptomatic for their whole life
    • sometimes see a little tuft of hair at the base of the spine
  18. What is meningocele spina bifida?
    • moderate form
    • fluid filled sac outside the body but there are no nerves or cord parts in it
    • translucent sac- look in it to ensure no tissue
    • protect it- put the baby on their tummy
    • not usually a lot of deficits from this but there can be
  19. What is myelomeningocele spina bifida?
    • severe form
    • cord and nerves outside of body
  20. What are the SXS of myelomeningocele spina bifida?
    • weakness
    • loss of sensation below the deficit
    • problems with bowel and bladder
    • often seen with hydrocephalus
  21. What is encephalocele spina bifida?
    • protrusion through the skull with brain tissue inside
    • put them on their side
  22. What is cerebral palsy?
    congenital motor impairment disorder (non-progressive)
  23. What are the four major classifications of cerebral palsy?
    • Spastic paralysis
    • Dyskinetic
    • Ataxic
    • Mixed
  24. What is spastic paralysis cerebral palsy?
    • most common form
    • scissored legs
    • hyperreflexia
    • increased muscle tone
    • damage is in motor cortex itself
    • can be para, quad, or diplic
  25. What is dyskinetic cerebral palsy?
    • 2nd most common form
    • basal ganglia and extrapyramidal system are affected
    • fine motor is mostly affected
  26. What is ataxic cerebral palsy?
    • cerebellum is affected
    • balance issues
    • least common form
  27. What is mixed cerebral palsy?
    combinations of the other types
  28. What common problems do all types of cerebral palsy share?
    • CSF problems
    • dysarthria
    • mental retardation
    • tongue thrusting
  29. What is Bell's palsy?
    sudden temporary facial paralysis due to inflammation to CN VIII (Facial)
  30. What are the SXS of Bell's palsy?
    • mild weakness to total paralysis
    • twitching
    • facial drooping
    • ptosis
    • NO PAIN
  31. Define neuralgia.
    Pain due to damage or irritation of a nerve
  32. What is trigeminal neuralgia?
    damage to CN V causes pain limited to the face but there is no motor involvement
  33. What is glossopharyngeal neuralgia?
    • compression of CN IX due to inflammation causes severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils
    • difficulty swallowing can occur
    • can be life threatening if pressure starts to compress the brain stem
  34. Define neuroma.
    a tumor on nerve cells
  35. What is acoustic neuroma?
    a benign neoplasm compresses cranial nerve VIII and causes symptoms (can involve VII and V also)
  36. What are the SXS of acoustic neuroma?
    • unilateral hearing loss (differentiating from Meniere's)
    • balance disturbances
    • tinnitus
    • HA
    • fullness in the ear
    • trigeminal neuralgia
  37. What is Parkinson's disease?
    progressive neurologic disease that affects the basal ganglia (and therefore fine motor control) due to an imbalance between low dopamine and normal ACH
  38. What are the SXS of Parkinson's disease?
    • Tremors that occur at rest
    • Rigidity
    • Bradykinesia
    • Micrographia
  39. How is Parkinson's treated?
    • Levodopa
    • physical therapy
  40. What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?
    • ALS or Lou Gherig's disease; caused by the neurons in the mortor cortex and spinal cord wasting and hardening and becoming non-functional
    • Affects voluntary skeletal muscle
    • Rapidly progressing
    • Does not affect intellect
    • Starts in a specific isolated area and then progresses throughout body, causing paraplegia and eventually death (paralysis of diaphragm)
  41. What is muscular dystrophy?
    refers to a group of motor neuron genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles
  42. What is the most common form of MD?
    • Duchenne's; affects males primarily
    • involves the deficit of dystrophin protein that starts killing muscle and replacing it w/ connective tissue; usually can't walk by age 12
  43. What is multiple sclerosis?
    • thought to be an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system
    • involves destruction of CNS myelin (demyelination) of the white matter of the brain
    • most common acquired disease of the nervous system in young adults, more women than men
    • does not affect intellect
  44. What are the SXS of multiple sclerosis?
    • fatigue
    • vertigo
    • clumsiness
    • unsteady gait
    • slurred speech
    • blurred or double vision
    • facial numbness or pain
  45. What is Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS)?
    • autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves and sometimes cranial nerves
    • exact cause is unknown but could be viral infections or immunizations
    • causes damage to myelin sheaths
  46. What are the SXS of Guillian-Barre syndrome?
    • progressive muscle weakness
    • can affect ANS-swallowing and respiration
  47. What is myasenthia gravis?
    • chronic autoimmune disorder that destroys ACH receptor sites at neuromuscular junctions
    • prevents nerve impulses from reaching the muscles
    • weakness and rapid fatigue occurs in affected muscles
  48. When does myasenthia gravis usually affect females?
    ages 20-30
  49. When does myasenthia gravis usually affect males?
    ages 70-80
  50. What are some SXS of myasenthia gravis?
    • drooping eyelids
    • difficulty speaking
    • difficulty swallowing and chewing
    • weakened respiratory muscles
    • difficulty with extremity movements
  51. What is a myasthenic crisis?
    • Severe muscle weakness involving respiratory insufficiency
    • Problem here is respiratory arrest
  52. What is a cholinergic crisis?
    • associated with myasenthia gravis
    • anticholinergic drug toxicity causes SLUDGE symptoms along with symptoms of myasthenic crisis
    • the muscles stop responding to ACH and can lead to paralysis of respiratory muscles

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