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What disease affects only the motor neurons and spares the entire sensory system and intellect?
What causes the effects of Parkinson's disease?
A low amount of dopamine and a normal amount of acetylcholine
What should be your biggest concern in a patient with myasthenia gravis who is having SOB and difficulty swallowing?
The patient may go into respiratory arrest
What disorder involves temporary paralysis of the face and is characterized by facial droop, ptosis, and facial twitching?
drooping of the eyelid
Which disorder is an inherited muscle disorder in which the male patient gradually loses his ability to walk and most do not survive into their teenage years?
Which type of spina bifida is most common?
What is the term that is used for a local or diffuse change in a patient's muscle tone?
What is primary dystonia caused by?
Damage to the extrapyramidal system
What is primary dystonia as a neurological disorder?
- causes involuntary muscle contractions in any part of the body
- can force certain parts of the body into abnormal, sometimes painful, movements or postures
What is myoclonus?
- describes a symptom, not a disease
- refers to sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
Myoclonus can develop in response to what kinds of things?
- head injury or SCI
- stroke or brain tumors
- kidney or liver failure
- chemical or drug poisoning
- prolonged oxygen deprivation
Define peripheral neuropathy.
diseases or disorders that affect the peripheral nervous system (spinal nerve roots, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves)
What are some causes of peripheral neuropathy?
- dietary deficiencies especially B vitamins
- lead poisoning
- drug intoxication
- viral infection
- rheumatoid arthritis
- malignant tumors
- inherited neuropathies
What is spina bifida?
congenital defect that stems from incomplete development of brain, spinal cord, and/or meninges
What are the 4 types of spina bifida?
What is occult spina bifida?
- most common form
- spinal cord and surrounding structures remain inside body
- could be completely asymptomatic for their whole life
- sometimes see a little tuft of hair at the base of the spine
What is meningocele spina bifida?
- moderate form
- fluid filled sac outside the body but there are no nerves or cord parts in it
- translucent sac- look in it to ensure no tissue
- protect it- put the baby on their tummy
- not usually a lot of deficits from this but there can be
What is myelomeningocele spina bifida?
- severe form
- cord and nerves outside of body
What are the SXS of myelomeningocele spina bifida?
- loss of sensation below the deficit
- problems with bowel and bladder
- often seen with hydrocephalus
What is encephalocele spina bifida?
- protrusion through the skull with brain tissue inside
- put them on their side
What is cerebral palsy?
congenital motor impairment disorder (non-progressive)
What are the four major classifications of cerebral palsy?
- Spastic paralysis
What is spastic paralysis cerebral palsy?
- most common form
- scissored legs
- increased muscle tone
- damage is in motor cortex itself
- can be para, quad, or diplic
What is dyskinetic cerebral palsy?
- 2nd most common form
- basal ganglia and extrapyramidal system are affected
- fine motor is mostly affected
What is ataxic cerebral palsy?
- cerebellum is affected
- balance issues
- least common form
What is mixed cerebral palsy?
combinations of the other types
What common problems do all types of cerebral palsy share?
- CSF problems
- mental retardation
- tongue thrusting
What is Bell's palsy?
sudden temporary facial paralysis due to inflammation to CN VIII (Facial)
What are the SXS of Bell's palsy?
- mild weakness to total paralysis
- facial drooping
- NO PAIN
Pain due to damage or irritation of a nerve
What is trigeminal neuralgia?
damage to CN V causes pain limited to the face but there is no motor involvement
What is glossopharyngeal neuralgia?
- compression of CN IX due to inflammation causes severe pain in the tongue, throat, ear, and tonsils
- difficulty swallowing can occur
- can be life threatening if pressure starts to compress the brain stem
a tumor on nerve cells
What is acoustic neuroma?
a benign neoplasm compresses cranial nerve VIII and causes symptoms (can involve VII and V also)
What are the SXS of acoustic neuroma?
- unilateral hearing loss (differentiating from Meniere's)
- balance disturbances
- fullness in the ear
- trigeminal neuralgia
What is Parkinson's disease?
progressive neurologic disease that affects the basal ganglia (and therefore fine motor control) due to an imbalance between low dopamine and normal ACH
What are the SXS of Parkinson's disease?
- Tremors that occur at rest
How is Parkinson's treated?
What is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?
- ALS or Lou Gherig's disease; caused by the neurons in the mortor cortex and spinal cord wasting and hardening and becoming non-functional
- Affects voluntary skeletal muscle
- Rapidly progressing
- Does not affect intellect
- Starts in a specific isolated area and then progresses throughout body, causing paraplegia and eventually death (paralysis of diaphragm)
What is muscular dystrophy?
refers to a group of motor neuron genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles
What is the most common form of MD?
- Duchenne's; affects males primarily
- involves the deficit of dystrophin protein that starts killing muscle and replacing it w/ connective tissue; usually can't walk by age 12
What is multiple sclerosis?
- thought to be an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system
- involves destruction of CNS myelin (demyelination) of the white matter of the brain
- most common acquired disease of the nervous system in young adults, more women than men
- does not affect intellect
What are the SXS of multiple sclerosis?
- unsteady gait
- slurred speech
- blurred or double vision
- facial numbness or pain
What is Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS)?
- autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nerves and sometimes cranial nerves
- exact cause is unknown but could be viral infections or immunizations
- causes damage to myelin sheaths
What are the SXS of Guillian-Barre syndrome?
- progressive muscle weakness
- can affect ANS-swallowing and respiration
What is myasenthia gravis?
- chronic autoimmune disorder that destroys ACH receptor sites at neuromuscular junctions
- prevents nerve impulses from reaching the muscles
- weakness and rapid fatigue occurs in affected muscles
When does myasenthia gravis usually affect females?
When does myasenthia gravis usually affect males?
What are some SXS of myasenthia gravis?
- drooping eyelids
- difficulty speaking
- difficulty swallowing and chewing
- weakened respiratory muscles
- difficulty with extremity movements
What is a myasthenic crisis?
- Severe muscle weakness involving respiratory insufficiency
- Problem here is respiratory arrest
What is a cholinergic crisis?
- associated with myasenthia gravis
- anticholinergic drug toxicity causes SLUDGE symptoms along with symptoms of myasthenic crisis
- the muscles stop responding to ACH and can lead to paralysis of respiratory muscles