AP Biology- Chapter 6

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AP Biology- Chapter 6
2010-11-07 19:53:28
Cell organelle

Tour of the Cell
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  1. name of the structures that are surface appendages that allow a bacterium to stick to a surface.
  2. sticky, jellylike protective layer outside the cell wall
  3. Which structure acts as a selective barrier, allowing passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes?
    plasma membrane
  4. A _____ cell does not have a nucleus.
  5. ____ are in constant motion. Some of this motion is ____, as membrane lipids and proteins move sideways in the bilayer. But certain regions also move by budding out from their surrounding membrane and pinching off into vesicles. These vesicles can move to other regions of the cell, find suitable receptors, and fuse with a different patch of membrane. Although each type of structure has different properties and functions, they are interconnected by ____ into an endomembrane system. One of the most common patterns of membrane traffic is the movement of newly synthesized proteins from rough ER to various destinations, for the following purposes:- ____, ____, ____
    • Cell membranes
    • lateral diffusion
    • membrane traffic
    • --secretion outside the cell
    • --creating lysosomes
    • --replacing proteins in the plasma membrane.
  6. Proteins destined for secretion are made from ___. The proteins move through the endomembrane system and are dispatched from the ___ in transport vesicles that move through the cytoplasm and then fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing the protein to the outside of the cell. Examples of secretory proteins are ___, ___, ___.
    • bound ribosomes
    • Golgi apparatus
    • collagen, insulin, and digestive enzymes of the stomach and intestine
  7. A cell organelle constructed in the nucleolus and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
  8. The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles.
  9. An organelle in eukaryotic cells consisting of stacks of flat membranous sacs that modify, store, and route products of the endoplasmic reticulum.
    Golgi apparatus
  10. A tiny membranous sac in a cell’s cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
    transport vesicle
  11. The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell’s chemical composition
    plsma membrane
  12. A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
  13. One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
  14. An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
  15. An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
  16. A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with these cells (bacteria and archaea) are called _____.
    • prokaryotic cells
    • prokaryotes
  17. A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with these cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called ____.
    • eukaryotic cells
    • eukaryotes
  18. The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell.
  19. A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. the ones in prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ in both structure and function.
  20. A short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
  21. ____ and _____ are microtubular structures that extend outside some cells and that assist in moving the cell or the cell's surroundings.
    flagella and cilia
  22. Which is longer: flagella or cilia?
  23. Flagella and cilia are assembled from ____ organized to form a circular arrangement of nine pairs of microtubules attached to a central pair. Flagella and cilia bend to cause movement of either the cell or the surroundings. The bending uses energy derived from the _________.
    • tubulin subunits
    • hydrolysis of ATP
  24. A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells.
    tight junction
  25. A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that functions as an anchor.
  26. A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
    gap junctions
  27. An open channel in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
  28. ____ bind cells together and form a barrier that prevents fluids from moving between the intestinal space and the space between cells.
    Tight junctions
  29. _____, or anchoring junctions, appear as thickened patches in the cell membrane region between two cells; contain specialized proteins, such as ____ (the same protein found in fingernails and hair), that increase the rigidity of tissues; are buttonlike junctions that bind cells together and also function as anchors for fibers in the _____.
    • Desmosomes
    • keratin
    • cytoskeleton
  30. In ____, or communicating junctions, two cells are separated by a small gap, which is bridged by specialized channels that allow the passage of water and small molecules; help coordinate the activities of adjacent cells.
    gap junctions
  31. Some higher plant cells are interconnected by ___, tubelike structures that penetrate through cell walls and form fluid connections between adjacent cells. Like gap junctions in animal cells, they allow the free exchange of small molecules and help coordinate the activities of neighboring cells.
  32. Where are ribosomal subunits made?
  33. Can you identify the membranous tubules and sacs where secretory proteins and membranes are manufactured?
    Rough ER
  34. rods that shape and support the cell, and serve as tracks along which other organelles can move?
  35. Which cell components are identical in structure to basal bodies?
  36. What are thin, solid protein rods, especially numerous in muscle cells, involved in cell support and movement?
  37. What are the membrane-lined channels that connect the cytoplasmic fluid of this cell to neighboring plant cells?
  38. Which organelle contains grana, where chlorophyll traps solar energy?
  39. What is the name given to strands containing DNA (genes) along with associated protein?
  40. Which organelle is a membrane- enclosed sac important in storage, waste disposal, protection, and growth?
    central vacuole
  41. What are thin, solid protein rods involved in cell shape?