Describe the relationship of light wavelength and amplitude
Wavelgnth is the distance from one wave peak to the next
Intensity, the amount of energy in light waves (determined by amplitude) influences brightness
The wavelength of light determines the color
The higher the amplitude, the higher in the color spectrum are the colors seen
What is transduction?
Transduction is the change of energy
Our eyes receive light energy and transduce it into neural signals that our brain then processes into what we see
Changes visual information into stuff our brain can interpret
As a transducer, the eye must detect and respond to the physical phenomenon of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelengths of the visible spectrum; and it must then transform that electromagnetic energy into a signal the nervous system can perceive and transmit
What is the cornea?
The first visual structure
Protects the eye and bends light to provide focus
The iris separates the anterior and posterior sections of the eye
The pupil perforates it
The iris is the contractor muscle of the eye
It regulates the amount of light let into the eye
The iris is the colored region of the eye
Pupil - What will cause its size to change?
The pupil is the perforation of the iris
Contracted to control the amount of light allowed to enter the eye
The pupil contracts when light enters the eye and dilates when light is decreased
The pupil also dilates when sexually aroused
Why did women put belladonna on their eyeballs?
To dilate their pupils
Are women with large pupils more physically attractive? How was this tested?
No they are not
Modern research says it did not work in terms in attracted, but made them “friendlier” and men wanted to talk to them more, but not date them more
Researchers showed two identical pictures
The subjects didn’t favor one over the other
Protection of the eye
Changes in shape to conform to changes in distance
Allows us to focus on close or far objects
Opens and shuts altering the amount of light let into the retina, and this changes the visual acuity of a person.
The retina is a light sensitive inner surface of the eye
Absorbs light and starts processing the image.
The retina's area of central focus
The fovea is the point at which maximum visual acuity is achieved
The pit in the retina that allows more the maximum acuity in human vision.
Located in periphery
Rods are in charge of black and white vision
Much more prevalent than cones (120 million)
Sensitive in dim light
Not responsible for detailed vision
They allow us to have night vision where we lose detail in order to gain basic object shapes
Most prevalent in the fovea
Cones are the color portions of the eye, allowing us to see colors
They also provide detailed vision for us
They are not sensitive to dim light, and they focus on the details in what we see\
Less prevalent than rods (6 million)
What are floaters?
Floaters are bits of material in the retina that cast a shadow on the retina
What is the blind spot? How do we "see" with it?
The blind spot is the place where the optic nerve exits the eye
There are no photoreceptors here
The eye guesses what should be in the blind spot and the brain fills it in
Main visual pathway
The retina receives the image from the light we perceive
The optic nerve sends it to the thalamus
Thalamus sends the information to the occipital lobe
The retina doesn't see a whole image
Rather its million of receptor cells convert particles of light energy into neural impulses and forward those to the brain
The impulses are reassembled into a perceived, up-right image
What is the Young-Helmholtz (trichromatic) theory?
The Young-Helmholtz theory states that the eye has three different color receptors
Red (~570), green (~530) and blue (~440) wavelengths
The other colors are recognized as a combination of the three
White has all the colors and cancels all of the color receptors out
Opponent process theories of color vision?
The opponent process theory states that opposing retinal processes enable color vision
Cones feed into neurons that are excited or inhibited by cone pairs
Red/green, blue/yellow, black/white
This theory states that both of these processes can occur
What are feature detectors?
Feature detection is a process by which specialized nerve cells in the brain responds to specific features of a visual stimulus, such as lines, edges, angle, or movement
The nerve cells fire selectively in response to stimuli that have specific characteristics
What is parallel processing?
Parallel processing is the ability to carry out multiple operations or tasks simultaneously
The term is used in the contexts of both human cognition, particularly in the ability of the brain to simultaneously process incoming stimuli, and in parallel computing by machines
Relationship of amplitude and loudness
Loudness is psychological term, measured on sons
Amplitude is physical stimuli we receive
Relationship of frequency and pitch on hearing
The frequency correlates to pitch
Frequency is the rate of which we receive sound waves
Pitch is how we hear the sound
The cochlea is the auditory portion of the inner ear
This is the sensory organ of hearing
Amplify sound waves and transduce auditory information to the Brain Stem
If they are damaged, permanent hearing damage is induced
Stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes that run along the coil of the cochlea
Different frequencies are perceived in different areas, the vibrations are what allow us to hear
Our body's ability to synchronize over a time period of 24 hour day cycle
Rapid eye movement sleep
The heart rate increases, breathing increases
Men can get erections, women increase wetness
Place theory is a theory of hearing which states that our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the basilar membrane
By this theory, the pitch of a musical tone is determined by the places where the membrane vibrates, based on frequencies corresponding to the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory neurons
The brain reads pitch by monitoring the frequency of neural impulses traveling up the auditory nerve
Frequency theory attempts to explain how the brain experiences sound waves
While frequency theory is primarily a physiological theory that seeks to explain how the anatomical structure of the ear accounts for hearing, it is also a psychological theory that explores how sound is experienced by the mind
How are sounds located?
The Doppler effect
If the sound comes from the left, the right ear perceives it after the left ear
Therefore we perceive the sound on the left instead of the right
What is selective attention?
The issue of why people pay attention, how much they do and to what is often more referred to as selective attention
In any busy scene, is it a classroom or a freeway, it’s virtually impossible to note everything at once
What a person pays attention to in these circumstances is what they select to pay attention to, though it may be noted that selection is not necessarily conscious
Selected attention can then be viewed as the process by which people find something upon which to concentrate, and the level of concentration they can continue to exert as distractions arise.
How is selective attention demonstrated by the cocktail party effect?
The cocktail party effect describes the ability to focus one's listening attention on a single talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises, ignoring other conversations
The effect enables people to talk in a noisy place
For example, when conversing in a noisy crowded party, people can still listen and understand the person they are talking with, and can simultaneously ignore background noise and conversations
Nevertheless, if someone calls out their name from across the room, people will immediately notice
What is change blindness?
In visual perception, change blindness is the phenomenon that occurs when a person viewing a visual scene apparently fails to detect large changes in the scene
For change blindness to occur, the change in the scene typically has to coincide with some visual disruption such as a saccade (eye movement) or a brief obscuration of the observed scene or image
Example: monkey Youtube video
Change deafness relates to the inability to detect changes between two voices during the allocation of attention
A similar condition is change blindness
The blindness YouTube video
We create blind situations for ourselves by perceiving situations and not focusing on other situations
What is the Necker cube?
The Necker Cube is an ambiguous line drawing
It is a wire-frame drawing of a cube in oblique perspective, which means that parallel edges of the cube are drawn as parallel lines in the picture
When two lines cross, the picture does not show which is in front and which is behind
This makes the picture ambiguous; it can be interpreted two different ways
When a person stares at the picture, it will often seem to flip back and forth between the two valid interpretations
What is figure-ground?
We perceive objects as distinct from their surroundings
The organization of the visual field into object (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
How is figure-ground demonstrated by the face-vase illusion?
The vase and the face are interchangeable
Depending on which is chosen as the base and which is chosen as the face, a different object is seen
What does the Gestalt notion that "the whole is more (or different) than the sum of its parts" mean?
Gestalt said that the whole is different that the sum of its par
A football team of all amazing players that hasn’t played together < a team that isn’t as skilled but has played together.
What is the Gestalt principle of proximity?
We group nearly figures together
What is similarity?
We group similar figures together
What is continuity?
We perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones
What is closure?
We fill in gaps to create a complete whole object
What is connectedness?
We perceive linked objects as a single unit
What are binocular cues to depth perception (e.g., retinal disparity, convergence)?
The first cue is retinal disparity
By comparing the different images from the two eyes the brain computes distances
The great the differences between the two images, the closer the objects appear
The second is convergence, which is the extent at which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
The closer an object, the more the convergence
Monocular cues (e.g., relative size, interposition, relative clarity, relative height, linear perspective, brightness, light and shadows)?
Relativity – the closer the object, the bigger it appears
Interposition – if an object partially blocks our view of another object, we perceive it as closer
Relative clarity – Hay objects appear farther away than sharp, clear objects
Relative height – we perceive objects in our field of vision as further away
Linear perspective – parallel lines appear to converge with distance
Shadow – the visual system assumes light comes from above
What is the phi phenomenon?
San illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession
Perceiving objects an unchanging even as the retinal image changes
A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
Due to experience, assumptions and expectations
What can people who have had their vision restored after many years perceive? What can they not perceive?
The person could perceive color and figure ground
They have trouble identifying shape and distance
What is perceptual adaptation?
The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or inverted visual field
The ability to extend over our senses and sense the non-existing such as thoughts or predicting the future
Define paranormal psychology
The study of the evidence for psychological phenomena, such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis, that are inexplicable by science
What is telepathy?
Mind to mind communication
Remote viewing, perceiving remote events. Seeing events in other areas.
Perceiving future events
Paranormal but not perception
Mind affecting matter
“Whoever has telekinesis, please raise my hand.”
Why are personal stories of paranormal experience unreliable?
Weird stuff happens by chance
They also don’t notice disconfirming evidence
What is the ganzfeld procedure?
There is a receiver and a sender
The receiver receives the signal from a person in the other room
The sender sends the signal of a picture to their receiver
What was the overall result of the follow-up ganzfeld experiments?
There was a 25% chance the receiver was right
Many studies found 35%
We have to wait a few years to make sure other labs are doing it properly
Most psychologists now believe there is no reliable (replicable) evidence anyone posses ESP
What is the judgment of the majority of psychologists about ESP?
Most psychologists now believe there is no reliable (replicable) evidence anyone posses ESP
What is Consciousness?
Our awareness of our environment and ourselves
What did William James mean by the stream of consciousness?
Consciousness moves, flows, and changes
Levels of consciousness
Some activities require more consciousness than others
What are controlled processes?
Require alert awareness, attention, and interfere with ongoing activities
They are performed serially and one process at a time
They are performed slowly.
What are automatic processes?
Occur with little awareness, require minimal attention, and do not interfere with ongoing activities.
What does serially mean?
Appears in steps or arrangements
Appearing in successive parts or numbers.
What does in parallel mean?
Simultaneous processing of different actions at one time
What is the relationship between age and daydreaming?
A young adult daydreams much more than an adult
How much time does a young adult spend daydreaming?
1/3rd of the waking time is spent daydreaming
How is daydreaming tested?
Tested by giving subjects a pager or computer
They get paged asking what are they doing, feeling, or thinking
How can daydreaming be healthy?
Can help relax, endure frustration, and alleviate boredom, rehearsing possible approaches to problems
People who imagine and recall experiences with lifelike vividness and spend considerable time fantasizing
What are fantasy-prone personality traits?
Spend half their waking life daydreaming
Para-identities such as past lives, imaginary children, fantasy worlds
Psychic experiences, out of body, receive special messages
Approximately what percentage of the population has fantasy-prone personality traits?
How much time spent fantasizing with fantasy-prone population?
Half of their waking life
What is hypnosis?
A social interaction in which on person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
How is hypnosis induced?
Minimize external distractions, encourage concentration on only the suggested stimuli, and encourage the belief that the subject is about to enter a special state of consciousness