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Studies of gender and racial prejudice:
Male or female at head of table during discussion
Prices on a new car in Chicago
Allport’s “paradoxical” study of religion
Clarks’ doll study with African-American children
- head of table: ina board meeting environment, even if a woman was in the physical position of "head of the table" there is a tendency to turn to the next closest man.
- new car: white men got the best prices, black women the worst
- Allport: how people use religion in different way for different reason-scale
- Clark: black children often had more positive views of white dolls than black
Correlational findings on frustration-aggression
Cotton prices and lynchings
Nazi treatment of Jews
dysplaced aggression and scape goats
Means of prejudice reduction: Patricia Devine, Aronson, and Sherif
- Devine: breaking the prejudice habit
- Aronson: jigsaw groups
- Sherif: superordinate goals (boys camp)
Social Norms: Sherif, evidence of formation, and autokinetic effect.
- Sharif studies: light on wall (auto kinetic effect)
- Evidence: Sherif's experiment showed group norms are established through interaction of individuals and the leveling-off of extreme opinions. The result is a consensus agreement that tends to be a compromise...even if it is wrong.
Asch study of conformity:
Effect of unanimous majorities of different sizes
Effect of a “partner in dissent"
- unanimous majorities->conformity
- Partner in dissent->less likely to conform
Other conformity studies: Crutchfield and Milgram
- Crutchfield: proven leaders are able to persuade people to do their bidding
- Milgram: sidewalks of NY
Milgram’s studies of obedience: Results of original experiment, Results of several situational changes (% total obedience)
- original:65% obedient
- changes: telephone-21%, arm-30%, assistant (no prestige)-47.5%, additional refusers-only 4 continued, removal of responsibity-37/40 contued
Value of a person's credibility fades over time and less credible sources have more appeal
having qualities that appeal to an audience
we like people who are like ourselves
Good feelings, fear arousal, music, food, distracting audience: effects on persuasion
Primacy and recency effects in 2-sided presentations
- primacy: 1st item is better remembered
- recenct, most recent item is remembered
Simple or complex message
depends on the audience
Study of heart disease risk in three California towns
there was significant variation between the three communities in baseline risk factor patterns and suggested that the communities, not individuals, be used as the experimental units in testing for reductions.