soc psych exam 2 research

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anmcdnld
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48026
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soc psych exam 2 research
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2010-11-07 21:54:24
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research
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  1. Studies of gender and racial prejudice:
    Male or female at head of table during discussion
    Prices on a new car in Chicago
    Allport’s “paradoxical” study of religion
    Clarks’ doll study with African-American children
    • head of table: ina board meeting environment, even if a woman was in the physical position of "head of the table" there is a tendency to turn to the next closest man.
    • new car: white men got the best prices, black women the worst
    • Allport: how people use religion in different way for different reason-scale
    • Clark: black children often had more positive views of white dolls than black
  2. Correlational findings on frustration-aggression
    Cotton prices and lynchings
    Nazi treatment of Jews
    dysplaced aggression and scape goats
  3. Means of prejudice reduction: Patricia Devine, Aronson, and Sherif
    • Devine: breaking the prejudice habit
    • Aronson: jigsaw groups
    • Sherif: superordinate goals (boys camp)
  4. Social Norms: Sherif, evidence of formation, and autokinetic effect.
    • Sharif studies: light on wall (auto kinetic effect)
    • Evidence: Sherif's experiment showed group norms are established through interaction of individuals and the leveling-off of extreme opinions. The result is a consensus agreement that tends to be a compromise...even if it is wrong.
  5. Asch study of conformity:
    Effect of unanimous majorities of different sizes
    Effect of a “partner in dissent"
    • unanimous majorities->conformity
    • Partner in dissent->less likely to conform
  6. Other conformity studies: Crutchfield and Milgram
    • Crutchfield: proven leaders are able to persuade people to do their bidding
    • Milgram: sidewalks of NY
  7. Milgram’s studies of obedience: Results of original experiment, Results of several situational changes (% total obedience)
    • original:65% obedient
    • changes: telephone-21%, arm-30%, assistant (no prestige)-47.5%, additional refusers-only 4 continued, removal of responsibity-37/40 contued
  8. Source credibility
    Value of a person's credibility fades over time and less credible sources have more appeal
  9. source attractiveness
    having qualities that appeal to an audience
  10. source similarity
    we like people who are like ourselves
  11. Good feelings, fear arousal, music, food, distracting audience: effects on persuasion
    All help
  12. Primacy and recency effects in 2-sided presentations
    • primacy: 1st item is better remembered
    • recenct, most recent item is remembered
  13. Simple or complex message
    depends on the audience
  14. Study of heart disease risk in three California towns
    there was significant variation between the three communities in baseline risk factor patterns and suggested that the communities, not individuals, be used as the experimental units in testing for reductions.

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