Chapter 11 terms

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Chapter 11 terms
2010-11-07 20:47:56
psychology motivation

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  1. motivation
    a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
  2. instinct
    a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned though out a species and is unlearned
  3. drive-reduction theory
    the idea that a physiological need creats an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
  4. homeostasis
    a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body around a prticular level
  5. incentive
    a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
  6. hierarchy of needs
    Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
  7. glucose
    the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
  8. set point
    the point at which an individuals's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight. (p. 451)
  9. basal metabolic rate
    the body's resting rate of energy expenditure (p. 451)
  10. anorexia nervosa
    an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
  11. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, folowed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. (p.453)
  12. binge-eating disorder
    significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without hte compensatory purging, fasting, or execessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa. (p. 453)
  13. sexual response cycle
    the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, organsm, and resolution.
  14. refractory period
    a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannnot achieve another orgasm.
  15. sexual disorder
    a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.
  16. estrogens
    sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than males and contributing to female sex characteristics. In non-human female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity.
  17. testosterone
    the most important of the male sex hormones. both male and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
  18. sexual orientation
    an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).
  19. flow
    a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with dimished awarness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills.
  20. industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
    the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
  21. personnel psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
  22. organizational psychology
    a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change.
  23. structured interviews
    interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales.
  24. achievement motivation
    a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for rapidly attaining a high standard.
  25. task leadership
    goal-orientated leadership that sets standards, organizes wrok, and focuses attention on goals.
  26. social leadership
    group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.