PSYC. EXAM

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Anonymous
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PSYC. EXAM
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2010-11-07 22:03:55
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PSYC. EXAM NUMBER 3 ON CHAPTERS 10
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  1. Prenatal Development is influenced by (2)
    Biological and environmental
  2. During what stage does zyogote becomes a mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and the placenta begins to form
    germinal
  3. Explain the germinal stage.
    zyogote becomes a mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and the placenta begins to form
  4. During what stage does most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form, making it a period of great vulnerability?
    Embryonic
  5. Explain the Embryonic Stage.
    most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form, making it a period of great vulnerability
  6. During what stage does organs continue to grow and gradually begin to function, as the fetus reaches the age of viability around 22-26 weeks.
    Fetal
  7. Explain the Fetal Stage.
    organs continue to grow and gradually begin to function, as the fetus reaches the age of viability around 22-26 weeks
  8. What increases newborns risk for birthcomplications and neurological deficits?
    Maternal Malnutrition
  9. What drugs comsumed by the mother will have a negative effects on prenatal development
    Alcohol and Tabacco
  10. Motor Development follows what two trends?
    Cephalocaudal and proximodistal
  11. what does Cephalocaudal mean?
    Head to foot
  12. what does proximodistal mean?
    Center-outward
  13. maturation and exploration are ________ aid in early progerss in what development?
    environment, and motor skills
  14. who proposed that children evolve through four stages of cognitive development?
    Jean Piaget
  15. what major achievement of the sensorimotor period(birth to 2) is development of ____________
    Objective permanene
  16. Explain the four pieces of the childrens thought processes from ages 2-7
    Centration, aminism,irreversibility,egocentrism
  17. what operational period do children develop the ability to perform operations on mental representations?
    Concrete
  18. what operational period thoughts become more systematic abstract and logical
    formal
  19. Explain the Social cultural theory.
    asserts that children's cognitive development is shaped by social interactions, language development, and cultural factors
  20. who stated the socialcultural
    lev Vygotsky
  21. Children acquire their cultures cognitive skills through collaborative dialogues with ____________
    more experience members of their society
  22. what is attachment
    refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
  23. who showed that reinforcement is not the key to attachment
    Harry Harlow
  24. who showed that infant-mother attachments fall into what three categories:
    Ainsworth, (1) secure, anxious-ambivalent and avoidant
  25. Infants with a relatively secure attachment tend to become ..?
    resilient, competent toddlers with high self-esteem
  26. what theory proposes that individuals progress through three levels of moral reasoning
    kohlsberg's
  27. ________ reasoning focuses on acts consequences, _______ reasoning on the need to maintain social order, and ______ reasoning on working out a personal code of ethics
    1. precoventional 2. Conventional 3. Post conventional
  28. who stated the theory proposes that individuals evolve throught ____ stages over the life span
    Erikson, and eight
  29. what are the eight stages of eriksons stages for childhood
    trust vs. mistrust, antonomy vs. self doubt, intiative vs. guilt
  30. what is puberty?
    it is the stage during which the primary sex characteristics develop fully
  31. why is puberty happen earlier ?
    improvements in nurition and medical care also because they are left alone by themselves and they have to learn to take care out themselves at a earlier age
  32. what is the last area of the brain to fully mature and this maturation is not complete until late adolescence or early adulthood
    prefrontal cortex
  33. who stated that the main challenge of adolescence is the struggle for a sense of identity
    erikson
  34. who stated that adolescents deal with their identity crisis in four ways
    1. forclosure 2. moratorium 3.identity diffusion 4. identity achievement
  35. Explain temperament
    durable disposition to behave in a particular way across a variety of situations
  36. state family transitions
    mariage/expectations,children,stress from adolescents, and empty nest
  37. explains physiological changes
    vision and hearing acuity decline, menopause, brain weight, dementias
  38. explain cognition
    IQ still stable, memory loss and speed in cognitive processing slows, high level of mental activity can retard declines
  39. the memory losses associated with aging are moderate and may be mostly due to declining__________
    a working memory

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