Card Set Information
PSYC. EXAM NUMBER 3 ON CHAPTERS 10
Prenatal Development is influenced by (2)
Biological and environmental
During what stage does zyogote becomes a mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and the placenta begins to form
Explain the germinal stage.
zyogote becomes a mass of cells that implants in the uterine wall and the placenta begins to form
During what stage does most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form, making it a period of great vulnerability?
Explain the Embryonic Stage.
most vital organs and bodily systems begin to form, making it a period of great vulnerability
During what stage does organs continue to grow and gradually begin to function, as the fetus reaches the age of viability around 22-26 weeks.
Explain the Fetal Stage.
organs continue to grow and gradually begin to function, as the fetus reaches the age of viability around 22-26 weeks
What increases newborns risk for birthcomplications and neurological deficits?
What drugs comsumed by the mother will have a negative effects on prenatal development
Alcohol and Tabacco
Motor Development follows what two trends?
Cephalocaudal and proximodistal
what does Cephalocaudal mean?
Head to foot
what does proximodistal mean?
maturation and exploration are ________ aid in early progerss in what development?
environment, and motor skills
who proposed that children evolve through four stages of cognitive development?
what major achievement of the sensorimotor period(birth to 2) is development of ____________
Explain the four pieces of the childrens thought processes from ages 2-7
what operational period do children develop the ability to perform operations on mental representations?
what operational period thoughts become more systematic abstract and logical
Explain the Social cultural theory.
asserts that children's cognitive development is shaped by social interactions, language development, and cultural factors
who stated the socialcultural
Children acquire their cultures cognitive skills through collaborative dialogues with ____________
more experience members of their society
what is attachment
refers to the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers
who showed that reinforcement is not the key to attachment
who showed that infant-mother attachments fall into what three categories:
Ainsworth, (1) secure, anxious-ambivalent and avoidant
Infants with a relatively secure attachment tend to become ..?
resilient, competent toddlers with high self-esteem
what theory proposes that individuals progress through three levels of moral reasoning
________ reasoning focuses on acts consequences, _______ reasoning on the need to maintain social order, and ______ reasoning on working out a personal code of ethics
1. precoventional 2. Conventional 3. Post conventional
who stated the theory proposes that individuals evolve throught ____ stages over the life span
Erikson, and eight
what are the eight stages of eriksons stages for childhood
trust vs. mistrust, antonomy vs. self doubt, intiative vs. guilt
what is puberty?
it is the stage during which the primary sex characteristics develop fully
why is puberty happen earlier ?
improvements in nurition and medical care also because they are left alone by themselves and they have to learn to take care out themselves at a earlier age
what is the last area of the brain to fully mature and this maturation is not complete until late adolescence or early adulthood
who stated that the main challenge of adolescence is the struggle for a sense of identity
who stated that adolescents deal with their identity crisis in four ways
1. forclosure 2. moratorium 3.identity diffusion 4. identity achievement
durable disposition to behave in a particular way across a variety of situations
state family transitions
mariage/expectations,children,stress from adolescents, and empty nest
explains physiological changes
vision and hearing acuity decline, menopause, brain weight, dementias
IQ still stable, memory loss and speed in cognitive processing slows, high level of mental activity can retard declines
the memory losses associated with aging are moderate and may be mostly due to declining__________
a working memory