Embryology

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Author:
sweetpea281
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48052
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Embryology
Updated:
2010-11-08 08:21:55
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ch12
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chapter 12 enamel
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  1. what is enamel developed from?
    ectoderm
  2. enamel is developed from ______
    ectoderm
  3. enamel is the _______ calcified tissue in the human body
    hardest
  4. is enamel radiolucent or radiopaque
    radiopaque
  5. why is enamel so radiopaque
    because its so calcified
  6. enamel has no ______ or ______ _______
    • nerves
    • blood vessels
  7. what is the chemical equation for calcium hydroxyapatite
    Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
  8. enamel is _____-_____ but looks ______ because of underlying dentin
    • bluish-white
    • yellow
  9. what is the secretory surface of the ameloblast?
    tomes' process
  10. what dictates the shape of each pillar aka _____ ____ of enamel?
    • Tomes' Process
    • enamel rods
  11. what is the shape of the enamel rods?
    hexagonal
  12. the matrix is first formed at the ______ and laid in waves until it gets to the ______
    • incisal
    • CEJ
  13. what pumps hydroxyapatite into the matrix?
    ameloblasts
  14. where does the ameloblast pump hydroxyapapatite from?
    the blood stream
  15. similar to ______ mineralization starts at the _____ and moves to the _____
    • appostition
    • incisal
    • CEJ
  16. after the tooth erupts what mineralizes the tooth?
    • fluoride
    • calcium ions in saliva
  17. why don't the ameloblasts mineralized the tooth after eruption?
    they aren't present after eruption
  18. what is the crystalline structural unit of enamel?
    enamel rodes
  19. rodes extend _______ to the DEJ
    perpendicular
  20. the space between each enamel rod?
    interpreismatic region
  21. where does the stain collect?
    interprismatic region
  22. what used to be the basement membrane that formed the battle lines for dentin and enamel?
    dentinoenamel junction
  23. what are the four types of incremental lines?
    • lines of retzius
    • imbrication lines
    • perikymata
    • neonatal line
  24. what is the incremental line that shows that enamel is secreted cyclically
    lines of retzius
  25. what are the lines of retzius
    incremental lines showing that enamel is secreted cyclically
  26. what type of lines are the raised scale like pattern of enamel?
    imbrication lines
  27. what are the grooves between each imbrication line?
    perikymata
  28. what is an accentuated incremental line because of the trauma at birth?
    neonatal line
  29. what is the darkest line when looking at the tooth microscopically?
    neonatal line
  30. what are odontoblasts that crossed the basement membrane and get stuck in the forming enamel?
    enamel spindles
  31. t/f enamel spindles are asymptomatic.
    true
  32. what are small dark brushes with their bases near the DEJ
    enamel tufts
  33. t/f enamel tufts don't crystallize correctly and are asymptomatic
    true
  34. what are partially calcified enamel sheets that extend from the DEJ to the occlusal surface
    enamel lamellae
  35. t/f enamel lamellae are narrower and longer than enamel tufts and are asympotmatic
    true
  36. what is the wearing away of enamel caused by tooth to tooth contact and can be caused by normal occlusion or grinding
    attrition
  37. what is the wearing away of enamel caused by non tooth contact. usually caused by hard toothbrushing and abrasive toothpastes
    abrasion
  38. what is the wearing away of enamel caused by chemical means usually stomach acid or beverages.
    erosion
  39. what is the deminearlization of enamel from the acidic byproducts of cariogenic bacteria and occures when pH is less than 5.5
    caries
  40. at what pH do you get caries?
    5.5
  41. what is it called when enamel just breaks away at the cervical margin of the tooth and may be caused by tensile or compressive forces during tooth flexure
    abfraction
  42. why do we do sealants?
    to create a barrier so bacteria cannot penetrate the pit or groove
  43. how are deep pits or grooves formed?
    while laying down the matrix, the ameloblasts backed into each other and it cut off their nutritional supply, this created incomplete enamel
  44. t/f both ameloblasts die off when a deep pit or groove is formed?
    true
  45. this incomplete _____ is a ____ or _____ in the tooth and is too ______ for your toothbrush bristles but _____ enough for bacteria
    • enamel
    • pit or groove
    • small
    • large
  46. a pit or groove is large enough for_____
    bacteria
  47. what does the bacteria do when it passes through the gaps in enamel?
    starts to demineralize the less calcified dentin and pulp beneath
  48. what does systemic fluoride help with?
    helps form stronger crystalline structures while teeth develop
  49. what does topical fluoride help with?
    remineralizes enamel after bacterial demineralization
  50. what kind of fluoride helps to remineralize enamel after bacterial demineralization?
    topical fluoride
  51. what kind of fluoride helps to form stronger crystalline structures while teeth develop?
    systemic fluoride
  52. what is the importance of etching?
    removes some of the organic portions of enamel to open gaps in the enamel so that the sealant material can flow in and increase surface attachment
  53. sealants are a ______ attachment
    mechanical
  54. what kind of product bleaches out stain?
    peroxide
  55. where does the bleach out stain?
    interprismatic region
  56. t/f bleach can reach all the way to the dentin?
    true
  57. why do the teeth become sensitive if the bleach reaches to the dentin?
    dentinal tubules communicate directly with pulp
  58. what is something that can be used to close the pores from bleaching to limit sensitivity?
    fluoride
  59. why doesn't enamel have nerves or blood vessels?
    because they would hurt all the time
  60. enamel ____ and _____ as it forms and this forms _____ like tree rings
    • starts
    • stops
    • lines
  61. ______ are smooth breaks vs ______ are sharp breaks
    • abrasion
    • abfraction
  62. _____ is gneralized vs _______ is localized
    • abrasion
    • abfraction

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