Nutrion 3

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JerrahAnn
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48145
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Nutrion 3
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2010-11-10 14:53:53
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Grossman
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Test 3 Nutrition
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  1. Major Minerals
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • Magnesium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • Sulfur
  2. Calcium
    Most abundant mineral in the body
  3. Major Functions of Calcium
    • 99%= structure of bones and teeth
    • 1%= dissolved in blood for:
    • - Muscle Contraction
    • - Nerve Transmission
    • - Blood Clotting
    • - Blood Pressure Regulation
  4. Dietary Source of Calcium
    • Milk and milk products
    • Soy milk
    • Broccoli
    • Fortified orange juice
    • Fish with bones (sardines)
  5. Deficiency Symptoms of Calcium
    • Osteoporosis- silent disease until elderly
    • - Porous and fragile bones
    • - Rickets= Childhood form of Osteoperosis
  6. Other Information about Calcium
    • To decrease bone loss:
    • - Exercise (walking and weight bearing)
    • - Adequate calcium
    • - Adequate vitamin D
    • - Estrogen replacement after menopause
    • - Bone mass peaks= 35 years
    • ~ After this, women can only prevent loss
  7. Phosphorus
    2nd most abundant mineral in the body
  8. Major Functions of Phosphorus
    • Bone and teeth structure
    • Major buffer
    • Part of DNA and RNA
    • Role in metabolism
    • Phospholipids
  9. Dietary Source of Phosphorus
    • Soft drinks
    • Animal protein
    • Legumes
    • Dairy products
    • Fish
  10. Deficiency Symptoms of Phosphorus
    Deficiency is rare
  11. Other Information about Phosphorus
    High amounts decreases Calcium absorption
  12. Major Functions of Magnesium
    • Component of bones
    • Important to enzymes
    • ATP metabolism
    • Inhibits muscle contraction, blood clotting
    • Prevents dental caries
    • Protects against hypertension
  13. Dietary Source of Magnesium
    • Dark green foods
    • Legumes
    • Whole grains
    • Nuts
    • Chocolate
  14. Deficiency Symptoms of Magnesium
    • Deficiency is rare
    • - Weakness
    • - Muscle pain
    • - Poor heart function
  15. Major Functions of Sodium
    • Principal cation (+) outside of cell
    • Fluid/electrolyte balance
    • Nerve transmission
    • Muscle contraction
    • If "salt sensitive," intake increases risk of hypertension
  16. Dietary Source of Sodium
    • Processed foods (= 75% of intake)
    • Table salt
    • Condiments
    • Sauces
    • Soups
  17. Deficiency Symptoms of Sodium
    Muscle cramps
  18. Other Information about Sodium
    • Salt pills are not recommended for endurance athletes (use sports drinks)
    • Diets rarely lack this mineral
  19. Major Functions of Potassium
    • Principal cation (+) within the body cells
    • Fluid/electrolyte balance
    • Nerve transmission
    • Muscle contraction
  20. Dietary Source of Potassium
    • Fresh fruits and vegetables
    • Meat
    • Milk
    • Whole grains
  21. Deficiency Symptoms of Potassium
    • Deficiency is rare
    • - Muscle weakness
  22. Other Information about Potassium
    • Toxicity: overuse of this mineral salt (heart patients)
    • As processing increases, this mineral decreases while Sodium increases
  23. Major Functions of Chloride
    • Major anion (-) outside the cell
    • Fluid/electrolyte balance
    • HCl in stomach
  24. Dietary Source of Chloride
    • Table salt
    • Processed foods
    • Some vegetables
  25. Deficiency Symptoms of Chloride
    Deficiency is rare
  26. Major Functions of Sulfur
    • Is not used as a nutrient by itself, but is part of other compounds
    • "Bridges" in proteins, stabilizes shape
    • Acid/Base balance
  27. Dietary Source of Sulfur
    All protein containing foods
  28. Deficiency Symptoms of Sulfur
    Deficiency is unknown
  29. Blood Calcium...
    Is maintained at the expense of bones
  30. Trace Minerals
    • Depends on soil, water, and processing
    • Deficiencies are typically failure to thrive and grow: used in all body systems
    • Toxic at intakes not far above estimated requirements
    • FDA cannot limit amounts in supplements
    • Interactions among them are common
    • - If take too much, can lead to deficiencies of others
  31. Types of Trace Minerals
    • Iodine
    • Iron
    • Zinc
    • Selenium
    • Fluoride
    • Chromium
    • Copper
  32. Major Functions of Iodine
    Component of thyroid hormone
  33. Deficiency Symptoms of Iodine
    • Goiter= enlargement of Thyroid Gland
    • Cretinism= occurs during pregnancy- retardation
  34. Dietary Source of Iodine
    • Iodized salt
    • Seafood
    • Ocean mist (= world's major source)
  35. Major Functions of Iron
    • Part of hemoglobin and myoglobin
    • Carry and release oxygen
  36. Forms of Iron
    • Nonheme
    • Heme
  37. Nonheme
    Found in plant and animal foods and is absorbed poorly
  38. Heme
    Found in animal foods and is better absorbed than nonheme
  39. Deficiency Symptoms of Iron
    • Most common nutrient deficiency in the US and worldwide
    • Depleted of this mineral stores with low hemoglobin concentration
  40. Absorption of Iron
    • Increased by pregnancy, vitamin C, and childhood
    • Decreased by tannic acid and calcium
  41. Toxicity of Iron
    • Hemochromatosis (the most common genetic disease in the US)
    • Iron poisoning- children accidentally take iron pills leading
    • - Leading cause in accidental poisoning in kids (as few as 5 pills)
  42. Dietary Source of Iron
    • Meat
    • Fish
    • Enriched grains/cereals
    • Green leafy vegetables
  43. Major Functions of Zinc
    • Important in:
    • Many enzymes, insulin, DNA/RNA, immune system, vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing, sperm development
  44. Deficiency Symptoms of Zinc
    • Growth retardation
    • Arrested sexual maturation
    • Impaired:
    • - Immune function
    • - Brain function
    • - Thyroid
    • - Taste
    • - Wound healing
    • - Vitamin A
  45. Dietary Source of Zinc
    • Shellfish
    • Meat
    • Poultry
    • Liver
    • Whole grains
  46. Major Functions of Selenium
    • Works as an antioxidant
    • Makes thyroid hormone active
  47. Deficiency Symptoms of Selenium
    May increase risk for heart disease
  48. Dietary Source of Selenium
    • Meats
    • Other animal products
    • Whole grains
  49. Major Functions of Fluoride
    Forms crystal structure of teeth
  50. Deficiency Symptoms of Fluoride
    Increased risk of dental caries (most widespread health problem)
  51. Toxicity of Fluoride
    In communities where water Fluoride is too high, you see fluorosis (darkened teeth)
  52. Dietary Source of Fluoride
    Drinking water (75% of US has access to Fluoride drinking water)
  53. Major Functions of Chromium
    • Associated with insulin to facilitate glucose uptake into cells
    • - These supplements do not help lose fat and build muscle, but does help with diabetes
  54. Dietary Source of Chromium
    • Meat
    • Egg yolks
    • Whole grains
    • Vegetable oils
    • Nuts
  55. Major Functions of Copper
    • Helps form hemoglobin
    • Collagen synthesis
    • Works with many antioxidant enzymes
  56. Deficiency Symptoms of Copper
    Deficiency is rare
  57. Dietary Source of Copper
    • Legumes
    • Whole grains
    • Nuts
    • Organ meats
    • Seeds
    • Dried fruits
  58. Water Balance
    Aldasterone (from Adrenal Glands) and Antidiruetic Hormone (ADH) from pituitary act on kidneys to retain water
  59. Electrolytes
    • Salts that dissolve in water and dissociate (separate)
    • Attract water
    • Examples: Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
    • Create osmotic pressure- pressure caused by water following electrolytes within or between cells
  60. Nutrition during childhood
    • Health status of children has improved over the last thirty years
    • - Less infant mortality
    • - Less nutrient deficiencies
    • BUT:
    • - Overweight has increased
    • - 2x in kids age 2-5
    • - 3x in kids age 6-11
  61. Nutrients of Concern in Childhood
    • Energy and Protein
    • - Getting the right balance
    • 11% of households are food insecure
  62. Iron in Nutrients of Concern
    • Impacts child's motor and mental development
    • - Infancy to childhood is big feeding transition
    • - Typically goes from rich to poor diet
  63. Calcium in Nutrients of Concern
    • Adequate amounts are needed, with physical activity to maximize bone growth and mineralization
    • Lowers risk of Osteoporosis as an adult
  64. Fiber in Nutrients of Concern
    • Intake should= child's age + 5 grams
    • For digestive health and overall healthy diet
  65. Dietary Fat in Nutrients of Concern
    • 30-40% of calories for children 1-3
    • 25-35% of calories for children 4-18
    • Limit saturated fat
    • - Impacts LDL cholesterol, even in childhood, increasing the lifetime risk for heart disease
  66. Dietary Sugar and Hypertension in Nutrients of Concern
    • Hyperactivity= ADHD
    • Occurs in 3-5% of school aged kids
    • - Not related to food allergies
    • - Not related to sugar intake
    • - Possibly related to caffeine, iron deficiency or living with chronic hunger
  67. Division of Responsibility with Feeding
    • Parent decides what to eat
    • - Offer healthy snacks
    • - Don't force feed
    • - Don't bribe or threaten
    • - Discourage eating with the TV on
    • Child decides when and how much to eat
  68. Children and Television
    • TV watching leads to
    • - More snacking
    • - Higher intake of high calorie foods
    • - Obesity?
    • - Watching > 4 hours/day led to a higher risk of obesity
    • - 65% of 8-18 year old in the US have a TV in their bedrooms
  69. Children and Obesity
    • Treatment
    • - Slow the rate of gain, let child grow into his/her weight
    • - Diet restriction for weight loss can interfere with normal growth
    • - Weight loss not recommended
    • - Get "junk food" out of the house and increase activity
  70. Lead Poisoning
    • Risk: Living in old homes (pre 1978)
    • Functional Impairment
    • - Impaired thinking, hearing, growth
    • - Decreased academic performance
    • Decreases in blood lead due to bans on
    • - Leaded paint
    • - Leaded gas
    • - Lead-soldered food cans
    • Nation-Whide monitoring
    • - Many Pediatricians screen at age 1
    • - Increased risk if have low iron or calcium status
  71. Growth and Nutrient Needs of Teenagers
    • Needs of teens vary with gender, body size, and activity level
    • Growth patterns vary widely
  72. Eating Patterns and Food Choices of Teens
    Provide nutritious snacks to help meet needs
  73. Acne
    • No foods have been proven to aggravate it
    • - Though low blood zinc is associated with it
    • Stress can worsen it
  74. Iron Needs During Adolescence
    • Boys:
    • - Elevated needs due to increased lean body mass
    • - Requirements drop after puberty
    • Girls:
    • - Elevated needs to support menstruation
    • - Requirements high during childbearing years
  75. Epiphyseal Plate
    • Cartilage strip of bone tissue responsible for longitudinal growth of bones
    • Disappears (calcifies) around age 17, or when puberty stops
  76. Bone Growth in Adolescents
    • Physical Activity and calcium are important during this
    • - 85% of females and 64% of males do not receive adequate calcium from age 12-19
  77. Physical Activity of Adolescents
    • Only 35% met activity guidelines
    • 10% reported no moderate to vigorous activity
    • Activity declines throughout adolescence
    • More males than females meet daily activity guidelines
  78. Nutrition for Active Adolescents
    • High levels of activity combined with growth and development increase needs for energy, protein, and certain vitamins and minerals
    • Nutrient needs are higher during intense training and competition seasons
    • Competitive athlete may need 500-1500 additional calories per day
    • Protein should supply no more than 30% of calories in the diet
  79. Energy for Weight Management
    • Caloric expenditure declines 20% during adulthood
    • - Due to decrease in metabolic rate and decrease in activity level
    • Energy expenditure remains constant IF fat-free body mass stays constant
  80. Aging in the US
    • 1994- 3.5 million Americans were 85+
    • 2024- 9 million Americans will be 85+
    • Life expectancy
    • - Males: 74.1 years
    • - Females: 79.5 years
  81. Digestion and Absorption
    • Oral health status
    • Decreased production in saliva (xerostoma)
    • Atrophic Growth: decreased HCl and intrinsic factor secretion
    • Lactose intolerance
    • Decreased absorption of some nutrients
    • - Vitamin B12, calcium, iron
  82. Sensory Changes in Aging
    • Taste
    • Smell
    • Hear
    • Touch
    • See
  83. Body Composition in Aging
    • Decrease in lean body mass
    • Although calorie needs may decrease as muscle mass decreases, requirements for a lot of vitamins and minerals increase
    • - Need to eat more nutrient dense foods
    • Physical activity, especially weight bearing activities, will slow muscle atrophy
  84. Protein
    • Needs may stay the same or slightly increase
    • Good protein sources include:
    • - Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, soybeans
  85. Carbs and Fiber
    • Carbs is needed to spare protein
    • - Keeps protein from being used as energy
    • Whole grain carbs should be emphasized because of high fiber content
    • Fiber and water intake can alleviate constipation
  86. Water
    • Dehydration among older adults
    • - Lack of thirst
    • - Do not notice dry mouth
    • - Do not want to go to the bathroom often
    • 1 oz/kg actual body weight, with a minimum of 50 oz (6 1/4 cups) daily
  87. Vitamins
    • Vitamin B12
    • - Deficiency is common among older adults
    • - Decreased absorption
    • - RDA 2.4 a day
    • - May need to be as high as 10-25 a day
    • Vitamin D
    • - Loss of efficiency to synthesize in the skin
    • - Decreased intestinal absorption
    • - Low intake of vitamin D rich foods
  88. Minerals
    • Calcium
    • - Low intake of calcium rich roods
    • - Osteoporosis
    • Iron
    • - Decreased absorption due to low stomach acid or use of antacid
    • - Iron-deficiency anemia
  89. Physical Activity for Elders
    • Good for:
    • - Heart
    • - Bones
    • - Sparing muscle mass
    • - Decrease constipation
    • - Better flexibility, endurance, balance
    • - Improve physiological processes
    • - Preserves mental ability (increase blood flow)
  90. Federal Programs for Elders
    • Congregate Meals- meals served in a social congregate setting. Serves 25% of the elderly poor
    • Meals on Wheels- volunteers deliver meals to the doors
    • Compared to non-participants, participants had up to 31% higher intake of recommended nutrients
  91. Growth and Development during Pregnancy
    • Placenta- placenta, amniotic acid, umbilical cord
    • Fetal growth and development
    • - Zygote- 1st 2 weeks
    • - Embryo- weeks 2-8
    • - Fetus- 8 weeks to birth
  92. Energy and Nutrient Needs during Pregnancy
    • Energy needs: +300 calories day, need 1 extra serving from each of 5 food groups
    • Increase in other nutrients:
    • - Iron
    • - Protein
    • - Folate & Vitamin B12: for blood production and cell growth
    • - Vitamin D & Calcium: for bone development
  93. WIC
    • Started in 1972 by the USDA
    • Target Population: pregnant women, lactating women, and children up to 5
    • Eligibility Criteria: nutritionally at risk and low income families
    • Requires agencies to offer nutrition education and vouchers for nutritious foods
  94. WIC Participants
    • More likely to have prenatal care
    • Children had regular medical care
    • Mothers had better nutritional intake
    • Mothers had longer gestation, less preterm deliveries
    • Infants had bigger head circumferences
  95. Critical Periods in Pregnancy
    • Early pregnancy is the most critical: especially for folate deficiency
    • Main internal organs, along with major external organs are formed
    • Limited organ development (brain and heart) due to nutrient deficiency is irreversible
    • This is not the time that most women realize they are pregnant
  96. Neural Tube Defects
    • Spina bifida: one of the most common NTD; caused by failure of neural tube to close completely
    • Critical period for neural tube: 17-30 digestion
    • Folate supplementation
    • - Will cut NTD incidence in half
  97. Maternal Weight
    • Weight for height prior to conception
    • - Underweight- gain extra weight
    • - Overweight- no weight loss, just gain less
    • Weight gain DURING pregnancy
    • - Normal: 25-35 lbs
    • - Underweight: 28-40 lbs
    • - Overweight: 15-25 lbs
    • Weight gain within recommended range decrease surgical births and increases healthy birth rates
  98. Components of Weight Gain
    • Maternal fat stores only 7 of 30 lbs of weight gain
    • Fetus: 7 1/2 lbs
    • Increased breast size, fluid volume, blood supply, uterus, placenta, and amniotic fluid
    • Weight loss after pregnancy
    • Blood volume and fluids decrease
    • Some weight remains
    • Breast feeding will help with weight deduction
    • Exercise
    • Low impact, swimming is ideal
    • Avoids saunas and hot tubs- raises body temperature
  99. Nutrition Related Concerns in Pregnancy
    • Nausea- sometimes requires hospitalization if can't keep water down
    • Constipation and hemorrhoids
    • Heartburn
    • Food cravings and aversions
    • Non-food cravings- "Pica"
  100. Cigarettes and Pregnancy
    • Low oxygen to fetus, causes low birth weight
    • Associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  101. Medical Drugs and Pregnancy
    • Check with physician
    • Especially avoid aspirin and ibuprophen
    • Illegal drugs
  102. Environmental Contaminants and Pregnancy
    Only have 1 can of tuna per week (mercury is too high)
  103. Vitamin-Mineral Mega doses and Pregnancy
    Especially Vitamin A causes birth defects ("teratogenic")
  104. Dieting and Pregnancy
    Never diet during pregnancy
  105. Caffeine and Pregnancy
    • 1 cup of coffee or 2 cokes per day is ok
    • Sugar substitutes: 1 diet drink per day is ok
  106. Alcohol and Pregnancy
    • Limits oxygen delivery to the fetus, slows cell division and reduces the number of cells organs produce
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Birth defects arise from severe damage to the fetus caused by alcohol. A lesser condition, fetal alcohol effect, may be harder to diagnose, but also robs the child of a normal life
    • Abstinence of alcohol is critical to prevent irreversible damage to the fetus
  107. Malnutrition and Pregnancy
    Fetal growth is retarded, birth defects, spontaneous abortion
  108. Infant Birthweight
    • Biggest predictor of infant mortality
    • Low birthweight <5.5 lbs or 2500 grams
  109. Mother's Health Status
    • (Preexisting) Diabetes- lots of complications
    • Gestational Diabetes- diabetes during pregnancy
    • - 1/3 mothers develop diabetes later in life
    • Pregnancy Induced Hypertension ("Pre-eclampsia")
    • - High blood pressure protein in urine and fluid retention (edema), sometimes death
    • - Treated with low sodium and high calcium injections
  110. Mother's Age
    • Teens: In the US, 1/4 born to teenagers
    • - Low birth rate, stillborn, deformities
    • - Need to gain extra weight
    • Older women:
    • - Mothers often hypertensive or diabetic
    • - 1/50 births have genetic defects
  111. Nutrition during Lactation
    • Breastfeeding- a learned behavior
    • - Can be successful in a supportive environment
    • - Most women are physically able to breastfeed
    • - Extra fluid and enough energy and nutrients to make sufficient milk each day
    • - Need +500 calories a day
    • - Malnutrition most often diminishes the quantity of the milk produced without altering quality
  112. When women should stop breastfeeding
    • When milk is contaminated with alcohol, drugs, or other environmental pollutants
    • Most ordinary infections such as colds have no effect
  113. Benefits of Breastfeeding for the Infant
    • Provides antibodies (decreases respiratory and GI infections)
    • Nutrients are very absorbable
    • Decreases risk of allergies
    • Decreases risk of childhood obesity
    • Promotes correct development of jaws
  114. Benefits of Breastfeeding for the Mother
    • Postpartum Amenorrhea- ovulation is delayed during lactation, spaces out the pregnancies
    • Decrease in Breast and Uterine cancer- risk decreases the longer the woman breastfeeds
  115. Health Risks or Not Breastfeeding
    • Infants have a 21% higher post-neonatal infant mortality rate in the US
    • Higher rates of:
    • - SIDS
    • - Type 1 and type 2 diabetes
    • - Lymphoma, leukemia, Hodgkin's disease (cancers)
    • - Overweight and obesity
    • - High cholesterol
    • - Asthma
    • Are sick more often and have more doctor's visits
    • Formula has a chance of being contaminated due to poor sterilization of bottles or nipples
  116. Infant Formula
    • Must meet AAp standards for nutrient composition
    • Must use formula if stop breastfeeding before 1 year
    • Composition: companies try to mimic composition of breast milk
    • Nursing bottle tooth decay ("Bottle Mouth")
    • - Caused by going to sleep with bottle in mouth
  117. First Days of Life
    • Generally weighs from 7-9 lbs
    • Length is 19-21 in
    • Head is relatively large and has a soft spot on top
    • Startles and sneezes easily
    • Trembling jaw
    • Hiccups and spit up
  118. Energy Intake and Activity of Infants
    • Birth weight doubles by 4 months
    • Triples by 1 year
    • Nutrient RDAs are based on amount that breastfeeding babies get
  119. Nutrient Supplements and Infants
    • American Academy Pediatrics recommends single injection of Vitamin K at birth
    • Many Physicians give vitamin D, iron, and fluoride supplements
  120. Solid Foods and Infants
    • Can begin at 4-6 months
    • Iron fortified infant cereal is first
    • Have less fluid, need to keep fluid intake high
    • Food allergies: introduce single ingredient foods, 4-5 days apart
    • Choice of food: variety, balance, and moderation
    • No low fat milk until age 2
  121. Iron Foods for Infants
    • Fortified cereals
    • Meat
    • Legumes
  122. Vitamin C Foods for Infants
    • Fruits
    • Vegetables
  123. Foods to Avoid Feeding Infants
    • Concentrated sweets
    • Canned veggies
    • Honey
    • Popcorn
    • Whole grapes
    • Whole beans
    • Hot dog slices
    • Hard candies
    • Nuts
    • No regular milk until 1 year
  124. Top 4 Foods that Cause Allergies for Infants
    • Cow's milk
    • Eggs
    • Nuts, peanuts
    • Wheat
  125. Health Promotion Departments at UGA
    • Sexual health: SHHUGA
    • Anonymous: HIV testing
    • Violence Prevention: RSVP
    • Dietitian/Nutritionist
  126. High Risk Groups
    • Freshman
    • Greeks
    • Atheletes
  127. How many UGA students drink alcohol
    79%
  128. Percent of UGA students had a BAC of less than .08 the last time they partied
    70%
  129. Influences for Drinking
    • Personality, attitude, beliefs
    • Family
    • Media
    • Culture and society
  130. Alcohol in the body
    • Metabolized in the liver
    • - 1 drink per hour
    • Oxidation process
    • Alcohol is diuretic
  131. Mental Impairments
    Happens before physical impairments
  132. Physical Impairments
    Depends on individual tolerance signs of physical impairment
  133. Tolerance
    Point to which body handles alcohol consumption
  134. Trigger Level
    Level for alcoholism
  135. Alcohol Interferes with...
    • Digestion
    • Storage
    • Utilization
    • Excretion of nutrients
  136. Hypoglycemia
    Low blood sugar level
  137. Hyperglycemia
    High blood sugar level
  138. Important Excreted Minerals
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Potassium
    • Zinc
  139. Interferes with Absorption of Vitamins..
    • B1
    • B6
    • B12
    • Folate
    • Vitamin A
    • Vitamin D
  140. Fatty Liver
    Build up of fat cells in liver
  141. Alcohol Hepatitis
    Inflammation of liver
  142. Alcohol Cirrhosis
    Replacement of normal liver tissue with scar tissue
  143. Alcohol contains...
    • Only calories
    • No minerals or vitamins
    • 7 calories per gram
  144. Calories in Alcohol
    • Ounces x % Alcohol x 1.6 (beer/wine)
    • Ounces x Proof x 0.8 (hard liquor)
  145. Drink Moderation
    • 1-2 Standard drinks per day
    • Good for heart health
    • - Reduces risk of coronary heart disease
    • - Linked to the antioxidants
  146. High Risks
    • Alcoholics
    • Family History
    • Individuals with high tolerance
  147. High Risks of Binge Drinking
    • Not just about quantity
    • Other risks that affect impairment
    • - Gender, body size, body fluid, empty stomach, illness/tiredness, drugs, medicine, BC pill or menstruation, mood and expectations
  148. Consequences of Drinking
    • Health
    • - Fatty liver, neurological damage, cancer, alcoholism
    • Academic
    • Social
    • Impairment
  149. What is in a Drink
    12 oz beer, 1.25 oz liquor (80 proof), 4 oz of wine—ALL alcohol contains 0.5 oz of pure alcohol
  150. Strategies to Lower Alcohol Risks
    • Use a DD
    • Get a MOCKtail not a COCKtail
    • Set limits
    • Friend “check up”
    • Avoid drinking games
    • Eat before drinking

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