Chapter 46 Animal Sensory Systems and Movement
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signal b/w individuals that causes a change in behavior or physiology
How can animals sense a change in the environment?
- 1. transduction - conversion of external stimulus to an internal signal through action potential
- 2. amplification of signal
- 3. transmit to central nervous system
- 4. integration - processing with other signals
sense danger/harmful stimuli
sense changes in temp
sense distortion caused by touch or pressure
perceive different types of molecules
sense wavelengths of light
sense electric field (only sometimes present)
- created when plasma membrane separates charges
- inside of cell has become more positive
- in hair cells, causes an inflow of calcium ions, triggering an increase in amount of neurotransmitter released at synapse
cause inside cell to become more negative
How do sensory receptors work?
They depolarize according to the loudness of the sound (louder the sound, the higher the firing rate of action potentials)
How does the brain distinguish between the different electrical signals?
- cells highly specific to a certain type of information
- sensory neurons send their signals to certain parts of the brain only
- ability to sense wavelength changes in air pressure
- depends on # of waves (frequency)
- different frequencies = pitches
- found in crabs
- fluid-filled organ with calcium-rich structure that senses pressure due to gravity
How do sensory cells react to pressure?
- direct phys pressure conforms the ion channel (either making it hyperpolarize or depolarize)
- leads to new action potential from sensory neuron
- stiff outgrowths that comprise hair cellswhen pressure is applied, the stereocilia lean and opens up a pathway for the ions to enter
- 9+2 arrangement of microtubules
- part of hair cells
3 parts of mammalian ear
- outer ear
- middle ear
- inner ear
- all separated by a membrane
funnels sound into ear canal
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