What are the 5 basic characteristics of Chordates?
1. Dorsal nerve cord
3. Pharyngeal slits
5. postanal tail
What is the main purpose of the notochord?
To stiffen the body or act as a skeletal axis
What are some features chordates share with some invertebrates?
Bilateral symmetry, cephalization, metamerism, coelomate, tube-within-a-tube body plan
Chordates have _______ cleavage, and the ____ is derived from the blastopore, therefore it is a deuterostome.
The notochord is the ______ part of the endoskeleton to appear in the embryo.
What forms from mesenchymal cells derived from blocks of mesodermal cells lateral to the notochord in vertebrates?
In most invertebrate phyla, the nerve cord is ____, but in chordates, the nerve cord is _______.
How is the brain formed in chordates?
The anterior end of the cord enlarges to form the brain
Pharyngeal slits are used for _______ ________ in some, and others have _____ in slits, which are used for respiration.
What is the endostyle's derivative? Are either one of these found in ALL chordates?
How is the endostyle used for getting food?
It secretes mucus that traps small food particles in the pharyngeal cavity
What is the postanal tail for?
Humans have a vestigial postanal tail called the ________
Examples of Urochordates
In urochordata, the notochord, nervecord, and postanal tail is only found in the ______ ______.
As adults, urodates are _____
Examples of cephalochordates
Cephalochordates ______ _____ all 5 chordate characteristics.
In ____________ (subphylum __________) , the _______ secretes a mucus net. Food particles are trapped on the net then is carried by cilia to the esophagus/mouth.
In _______ (subphylum ______), water enters the mouth, driven by ____, then passes through the ___________, where food is trapped in the mucus. Smallest food particles are _________ (intracellular digestion).
Pharyngeal pouches show up in the early embryonic stages of _____ vertebrates.
Gill arches are necessary in terrestrial vertebrates because?
They many form other structures (jaw, inner ear)
Formation of the ________ nerve cord: Bmp-4 prevents cells on the ______ side from becoming neurons. ______ protects the dorsal side from Bmp-4, leaving the dorsal side free to turn into neurons.
Formation of the _______ nerve cord: Dpp prevents cells on the ____ side from becoming neurons. _____ protects the ventral side from Dpp, leaving the ventral side free to turn into neurons.
The major difference between the first arch of humans and sharks?
Humans' first arches form some ear bones, which we do not see in sharks