Fundamentals

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Anonymous
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48207
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Fundamentals
Updated:
2010-11-08 17:55:03
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Fluids electrolytes fundamentals jb
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Fluids and Electrolytes
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  1. What is fluid balance?
    The amount of fluid gained=the amount of fluid out
  2. How much fluid is intracellular (found inside the cells)?
    • 2/3 or 25 liters.
    • Major electrolytes here: K, Mg, Phosphate, and Sulfate.
  3. An obese client comes into the ER with low fluid volume. Why should this be a concern?
    Obese clients have a relative low water content level, so > risk of fluid imbalance if fluid loss occurs.
  4. T or F
    Fat contains a significant amount of water.
    • False
    • Fat has no water. Lean tissue contains a significant amount of water.
  5. Body weight of water:
    Adult
    Infant
    >60
    • 40-60%
    • 70-80%
    • 45%
  6. How much fluid is extracellular (outside of the cells)?
    • 1/3 or 15 Liters
    • Used as transport system, medium for metabolic processes, contains oxygen.
    • Major electrolytes: Na, Cl, Bicarb, and Glucose
  7. What makes up Extracellular fluid?
    • Intravascular (plasma): 3 Liters-contains albumin and proteins
    • Interstitial: surrounding cells and blood vessels. Contains little or no protein.
    • Lymph: Transports wastes from cells.
    • Transcellular: CSF, pericardial, pancreatic, intraocular, peritoneal.
  8. What is an anion?
    • Negatively charged particle:
    • Chloride
    • Bicarbonate
    • Phosphate
    • Sulfate
  9. What is a cation?
    • Positively charged particle:
    • Na
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
  10. T or F
    Whenever an electrolyte moves out of a cell, another electrolyte moves in to take its place.
    • True
    • The number of cations and anions in the body must be the same for homeostasis.
  11. T or F
    A loss of 10% body fluids is fatal.
    • False
    • A loss of 20% body fluids is fatal.
  12. T or F
    When lab tests are performed they are performed on the
    A. Extracellular fluid (Plasma)
    B. Saliva
    C. Urine
    D. Intracellular fluid
    A. Extracellular fluid (Plasma)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. A crystalloid...
    A. Does not readily dissolve
    B.Readily dissolves in solutions
    A. Readily dissolves in solutions
  14. A colloid...
    Does not readily dissove. Ex. Large proteins.
  15. Diffusion is when
    A.Movement from an area of greater pressure to an area of lesser pressure by hydrostatic pressure.
    B. Molecules moving from an area of greater concentration to lower concentration
    C.Diffusion of a solvent across a membrane in rosponse to a concentration gradient that is usually from lower to greater.
    D.Movement of substances from an area of less concentration to an area of greater concentration using metabolic substances. Enzymes are required.
    B. Molecules moving from an area of greater concentration to lower concentration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Osmosis is
    A.Movement of substances from an area of less concentration to an area of greater concentration using metabolic substances. Enzymes are required.
    B.Diffusion of a solvent across a membrane in rosponse to a concentration gradient that is usually from lower to greater.
    C.Movement from an area of greater pressure to an area of lesser pressure by hydrostatic pressure.
    D. Molecules moving from an area of greater concentration to lower concentration
    B.Diffusion of a solvent across a membrane in rosponse to a concentration gradient that is usually from lower to greater.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Filtration is
    A.Movement from an area of greater pressure to an area of lesser pressure by hydrostatic pressure.
    B. Molecules moving from an area of greater concentration to lower concentration
    C.Diffusion of a solvent across a membrane in rosponse to a concentration gradient that is usually from lower to greater.
    D.Movement of substances from an area of less concentration to an area of greater concentration using metabolic substances. Enzymes are required.
    A.Movement from an area of greater pressure to an area of lesser pressure by hydrostatic pressure.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Active Transport is
    A.Diffusion of a solvent across a membrane in rosponse to a concentration gradient that is usually from lower to greater.
    B.Movement from an area of greater pressure to an area of lesser pressure by hydrostatic pressure.
    C. Molecules moving from an area of greater concentration to lower concentration
    D.Movement of substances from an area of less concentration to an area of greater concentration using metabolic substances. Enzymes are required.
    D.Movement of substances from an area of less concentration to an area of greater concentration using metabolic substances. Enzymes are required.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. How do the kidneys reulate body fluid volume and composition?
    • Regulate how much water is retained or excreted and electrolyte retention and excretion.
    • ADH-Restores blood volume by reducing diuresis and increasing water retention-Sensitive to increase/decrease to BV.
    • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone: Renin leads to production of angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor). Angiotensin II causes peripheral vasoconstriction and stimulates production of aldosterone.
    • Aldosterone :Promotes reabsorption of Na and excretion of K in the distal tubules of the kidneys. Na reabsorption results in passive reabsorption of water, thereby increasing plasma volume and improving kidney perfusion. When fluid excess is present, renin is not released and this process stops.
  20. T or F
    High blood pressure starts the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone cycle.
    • False
    • Low blood pressure starts the cycle.
  21. What is atrial natriuretic factor?
    Excess blood and stretching of atrial cells (increased atrial pressure) releases the hormone. Suppresses renin. Results in sodium wasting, diuresis and thirst inhibition.
  22. What is the total amount of fluids need daily for an adult?
    2500 ml

    • 1500 ml via drinking
    • 1000 ml via food intake
  23. How much water is released with the metabolism of 100 calories of fat, protein, or carbs?
    10 ml of water
  24. Where is the thirst center located and what does it do?
    Hypothalamus-Primary regulator of fluid intake (triggered by osmotic pressure, vascular volume, and angiotensin).
  25. What is the normal output daily for an average adult?
    2300-2600 ml
  26. What is the normal amount of urine output per hour?
    50-60 cc

    Anything <=30 cc/hr is bad

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