A drive or feeling of discomfort, originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from one's customary, typically positive self-conception.
The tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of our emotional reactions to future negative events.
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives.
An unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently, the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price.
Justification of Effort
The tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain.
A reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual (e.g. in order to receive a large reward or avoid a severe punishment).
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself (e.g. one's attitude or behavior).
Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude.
The arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behaviors and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior.
The dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals' devaluing the forbidden activity or object.
A long-lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification.