Psychology Test 3; Chapter 4: Nature, Nuture, and Human Diversity
Behavior Genetics (pg 134)
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Environment (pg 134)
Every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
Chromosomes (pg 134)
Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid (pg 134)
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
Genes (pg 134)
The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes, a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
Genome (pg 134)
The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
Identical twins (pg 134)
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
Fraternal twins (pg 134)
Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
Temperament (pg 139)
A person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Heritability (pg 141)
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
Interaction (pg 143)
The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
Molecular genetics (pg 143)
The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
Evolutionary psychology (pg 143)
The study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection.
Natural selection (pg 143)
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
Mutation (pg 144)
A random error in gene replication that leads to change.
Gender (pg 147)
In psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
Culture (pg 153)
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Norm (pg 155)
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
Personal space (pg 155)
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
Individualism (pg 155)
Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.
Collectivism (pg 155)
Giving priority to goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly.
Agression (pg 160)
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
X-chromosome (pg 163)
The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y-chromsome (pg 163)
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Testosterone (pg 163)
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty.
Role (pg 165)
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Gender role (pg 165)
A set of expected behaviors for males or for females.
Gender identity (pg 165)
Our sense of being male or female
Gender typing (pg 165)
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
Social learning theory (pg 165)
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.