AP chapter 12 part a

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  1. Regions and Organization of the CNS
    Adult brain regions

    1. Cerebral hemishperes

    2. Diencephalon

    3. Brain stem (midbrain,pons, and medulla)

    4. Cerebellum

    Spinal cord

    Central cavity surrounded by a gray matter core

    External white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts
  2. Cerebral Hemispheres
    Five lobes

    1. Frontal

    2. Parietal

    3. Temporal

    4. Occipital

    5. Insula
  3. Cerebral Cortex
    - Thin (2-4 mm) superficial layer of gray matter

    - 40% of the mass of the brain

    - Site of conscious mind: awareness, sensory perception, voluntay motor initiation, communication, memory storage, understanding

    - Each hemisphere connects to a contralateral side of the body

    - There is lateralization of cortical function in the hemispheres
  4. Functional Areas of the Crebral Cortex
    The three types of functional areas are;

    - Motor areas--control voluntary movement

    - Sensory areas--conscious awareness of sensation

    - Association areas--integrate diverse information

    - Conscious behavior involves the entire cortex
  5. Primary Motor Cortex
    Motor homunculi: upside-down caricatures representing the motor innervation of body regions
  6. Broca's Area
    - A motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue

    - Is active as one prepares to speak
  7. Frontal Eye Field
    Controls volutary eye movements
  8. Visual Areas
    Visual association area

    -Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (e.g. color, form and movement)
  9. Auditory Areas
    Primary auditory cortex

    - Interprets information from inner ear as pitch loudness and location

    Auditory association area

    - Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds

    Olfactory Cortex

    - Region of conscious awareness of odors

    Gustatory Cortex

  10. Visceral Sensory Area
    Concious perception of visceral sensations i.e. upset stomach or full bladder

    Vestibular Cortex

    - Responsible for conscious awareness of balance (position of the head in space)
  11. Limbic Association Area
    Provides emotional impact that helps establish memories
  12. Lateralization of Cortical Function
    Left hemisphere --Controls language, math and logic

    Right Hemisphere- Insight, visual0spatial skills, intuition and artistic skills
  13. Functions of the Basal Nuclei
    -Influence muscular control

    -Help regulate attention and cognition

    -Regulate intensity of slow or sterotyped movements

    -Inhibit antagonistic and unnecessary movements
  14. Thalmamic Function
    Sorts, edits and relays information

    Mediates sensation, motor activities, cortical arousal,learning and memory
  15. Hypothalmic Function
    - Autonomic control center for many visceral functions (i.e. blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract motility)

    - Center for emotional response: Involved in perception, fear and rage and in biological rythms and drives

    - Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance and thirst

    - Regulates sleep and sleep cycle

    -Controls release of hormones by the anterior pituitary

    -Produces posterior pituitary hormones
  16. Epithalamus
    Pineal; glad--extends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin which helps regulate sleep-wake cycles
  17. Pons
    Fibers of the pons

    -connect higher brain centers and the spinal cord

    -Relay impulses between the motor cortex and the cerbellum

    -Muclei that help maintain normal rhythm of breathing
  18. Medulla Oblongata
    Autonomic reflex centers

    Cardiovascular center--which adjusts force and rate of heart contractions

    Vasomotor center adjusts blood vessel diameter for blood pressure regulation

    • Respiratory centers
    • -Generate respirator rhythm
    • -Contol rate and depth of breathing with pontine centers

    Additional centers regulate

    • Vomiting
    • Hiccuping
    • Swallowing
    • Coughing
    • Sneezing
  19. The Cerebellum
    Subconsciously provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contaction


    Recognizes and predicts sequences of events during complex movements

    Plays a role in nonmotor functions such as word association and puzzle solving
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AP chapter 12 part a
2010-11-09 01:04:19
AP chapter

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