CH 14 Notes

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Author:
banannie
ID:
48321
Filename:
CH 14 Notes
Updated:
2010-11-08 22:33:21
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Water Limited Resource
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Description:
Ch 14: Water
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  1. Life is impossible without water. Water makes up about __% of our body weight
    70%
  2. Of all water on earth, ____ is available for humans.
    less than 1%.
  3. The eather has plenty of water but __% of it is salty.
    97.5%
  4. Most of the water is ____, _____, or ____ in the soil or atmosphere.
    salty, frozen, or inacessible.
  5. __% of water on earth is fresh water, but almost __% is frozen in ice caps and glaciers.
    2.5%; 2%(1.97%)
  6. Water available to us is: __% is groundwater, and __% is freshwater in lakes, rivers, in soil, and air.
    0.5%; .03%
  7. The largest most productive estuary on the west coast is:
    San Francisco Bay; San Francisco Delta
  8. Estuary drains __% of California's land area via the ____ and ____ rivers.
    45%; Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers.
  9. San Francisco Bay and Delta provides drinking water for ___ of the state's population.
    2/3
  10. San Fransico Delta & Bay supplies irrigation for farmland that supplies __% of the nation's vegetables.
    45%
  11. The continuous circulation of water from ocean to atmosphere to land and back to the ocean is:
    Hydrologic cycle
  12. Fresh water found on earth's surface in rivers, lakes, streams, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands; remains on the land, does not seep down through the soil
    Surface water.
  13. Areas of land covered with water at least part of the year.
    Wetlands.
  14. The movement of freshwater from precipitaion and snowmelt to rivers, lakes, wetlands and ultimately to the ocean.
    Runoff.
  15. Area of land drained by a single river is:
    Drainage basin.
  16. An entire river system; the area drained by a river and all of its tributaries.
    Watershed.
  17. Fresh water under the earth's surface that is stored in underground aquifers.
    Groundwater.
  18. Stored ground water in caverns and porous rock:
    Aquifer
  19. Water stored between impermeable layers of rock; trapped or "protected" water.
    Confined (artesian) aquifer.
  20. Ground water with porous rock above it:
    Unconfined aquifers.
  21. The uppermost level of an unconfined aquifer, below which the ground is saturated with water:
    Water table
  22. The greatest user of water worldwide is ____ for ____ at about __%.
    Agriculture for irrigation; 70%
  23. To provide water for crops or landscape
    Irrigation.
  24. Dry land or desert.
    Arid
  25. Any region that receives less than 10 inches of rain per year.
    Desert.
  26. Land that gets more rain than desert but is prone to frequent and prolonged droughts.
    Semiarid.
  27. ____ and humans exacerbation causing flood damage; Upper Mississippi River Basin.
    Flood plains
  28. Example of flood plain:
    Upper Mississippi River Basin
  29. Areas bordering rivers that are subject to flooding:
    Flood plains.
  30. Flood damage potential is increased by ____ and ____ on flood plains.
    deforestation; housing development.
  31. The ____ of 9 mid-western states was worst flood in U.S. history.
    upper Mississippi flood in 1993
  32. ____ of the Mississippi flood plain contributed greatly to the flood damage.
    Housing development.
  33. The removal of more ground water than can be recharged by precipitation; lowering of the water table and can lead to subsidence.
    Aquifer depletion.
  34. Sinking of the land is:
    Subsidence.
  35. The movement of seawater in to a freshwater aquifer
    Saltwater intrusion (happens with aquifer depletion)
  36. Salt accumulation on the soil, especially when over irrigated.
    Salinization.
  37. Water problems in the U.S.:
    • Mono Lake
    • Colorado River Basin
    • Ogallala Aquifer
  38. ____ is former wastewater (sewage) that has been treated to remove solids and certain impurities, and then allowed to recharge the aquifer rather than being discharged into surface water.
    Reclaimed water (recycled water)
  39. Part of the runoff that comes from underground flow into rivers is:
    Stable runoff.
  40. ____ means humans use water resources carefully, so that water is available for future generations.
    Sustainable water use.
  41. Benefits and drawbacks of dams and reservoirs: Example-
    Columbia River; Fish ladder
  42. Used by migratory fish to get around dam.
    Fish ladder.
  43. Diverting water from where it is plentiful through a system of aqueducts is:
    Water diversion.
  44. Two methods of desalinization:
    Distillation; reverse osmosis.
  45. Taking the salt out of seawater or groundwater is:
    Desalinization.
  46. Boiling to separate water from impurities is:
    Distillation.
  47. Forcing saltwater through a semi-permeable membrane to take out impurities is:
    Reverse osmosis.
  48. Example of water conservation:
    • Agriculture (micro-irrigation)
    • Industry
    • Individual homes and buildings
  49. Water usage reduced by watering individual plants (reduces water usage by __-__% and salt left in the soil).
    Micro-irrigation (drip/trickle irrigation); 40-60% reduction.
  50. Water that has already been used in sinks and showers that can be used again for your landscape is:
    Gray water.
  51. Using landscape that requires little water is:
    Xeriscape.
  52. Making a difference in water conservation:
    • 1. Install water saving faucets
    • 2. Install low flush toilets
    • 3. Buy front-loading washer
    • 4. Avoid leaving the faucet running
    • 5. Use a dishwasher (full dishwasher)

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