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Rules or regulations issued by the president that have the effect of law. All executive orders must be published in the Federal Register.
A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes.
Rules that govern the operation of a particular government program that have the force of law.
A quasi-legislative administrative process that has the characteristics of a legislative act.
The ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional intentions.
Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies.
The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas.
The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees.
The process by which a law or policy is put into operation by the bureaucracy.
Federal Employees Political Activities Act
The 1993 liberalization of the Hatch Act. Federal employees are now allowed to run for office in nonpartisan elections and to contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections.
The 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate.
independent executive agencies
Governmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility (such as the Central Intelligence Agency) and are not part of any Cabinet department.
Businesses established by Congress to perform functions that can be provided by private businesses.
Major administrative unit with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture.
independent regulatory commission
An agency created by Congress that is generally concerned with a specific aspect of the economy. Exist outside of a major executive department.
The system by which federal civil service jobs are classified into grades or levels, and appointments are made on the basis of performance on competitive examinations.
civil service system
The legal system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected.
Reform measure that created the Civil Service Commission to administer a partial merit system. The act classified the federal service by grades, to which appointments were made based on the results of a competitive examination. It made it illegal for federal political appointees to be required to contribute to a particular political party.
Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support.
The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party in order to replace them with loyalists to the newly elected party.
A set of complex hierarchical departments, agencies, commissions, and their staffs that exist to help a chief executive officer carry out his or her duties. Bureaucracies may be private organizations or governmental units.
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