EXAM 4 REVIEW Nursing 1
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Dimensions of self-concept?
Self-knowledge- Who am I?- GlobalSelf= A composite of all the basic facts, qualities, traits, image and feelings one holds about themselves.
Self-Expectation- Who or What do I want to Be? Ideal-Self= constitutes the self one wants to be.
Self-Evaluation- How well do I like myself? Self-esteem needs and respect needs or need for esteem from others.
Formation of Self-Concept
Stages and Development of the Self
- Infancy- No self concept at birth.
- Childhood- Intact body is important, Need to be loved, trusted, and being trust worthy.
- Adolesence- Development of secondary sex characterstics, rapid body changes, sence of self is consolidated, and emphasis on sexual identity and development of own identity.
- AdultHood- Society places expecations on body, Fitness, sexuality, productivity, and beauty. Its important to meet expecatitions.
- Later Years- Declining physical and possibly mental abilities. Losses, increased dependency, diminished choices/options, and death.
Factors affecting Self-Concept
- Developmental- Criteria marks experiences necessary for positive self-concept change.
- Culture- Value of parents and peers, and culture influences sense of self.
- Internal/External Resources- personal strengths help recognize and develop a powerful and subjective self-concept.
- History of Success and Failure- A history of repeted failure can make a person feel they are a failure. Success helps people succeede.
- Crisis or Life Stressors- Life stressors or crises ( marriage, divorce, illness, job loss, raise, gray hair) can paralize or build self-concept.
- Aging, Illness, or Trauma- An illness or alteration in function positive or negative, can effect the patient's self-concept.
- Can Successfully identity and resolve self-concept disturbances in patients.
- Self-concept focuses on the patient as a whole.
- Personal Identity- Describes and individual conscious sence of who he or she is.
- Personal Strentghs- Are something they are good at, or are strong in.
- Body Image- Is the subjective view a person has about his or her physical appearence.
- Self-Esteem- The person's precetpions of self, like or dislike, pleased with his or her expectations or progress.
- Role-Performance- Ability to perform in society regarding role-specific behaviors.
Disturbances in Self-Concept as the problem
Usually is an disturbed body image, low self-esteem, and ineffective role performance.
Helping Patients identiry and use personal strengths
- Replace self-negation with positive thinking.
- Notice and reinforce strengths.
- Help patients cope with aging and illness.
Components and Conditons
Visceral- Pertaining to inner organs.
Stimulus- Agent, act, or influence that stimulates a nervous system response.
Sensory Reception- The process of recieving data.
Stereognosis- Sense preceiving solidity of an objects.
Kinesthesia- awareness of postioning of the body parts or movement.
Sensory Perception- is the conscious process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting data from the senses into meaningful information.
RAS- Reticular Activating System
A network of nerves from the hypothalamus to the medulla, it mediates arousal.
Sensoristais- Optimal arousal state in RAS.
Disturbed sensory Perception
Disrupted perceptions in color, sound, and touch.
The reduction of enviromental stimuli by physical isolation and or loss of eye sight.
When a person experiences so much sensory stimuli the brain is unable to respond meaningfully or ignores stimuli.
Farsightness due to cilary miscle weakness and loss of elasticity in the crystalline lens.
- Heterosexual- One who experiences sexual fulfillment with the opposite sex.
- Homosexual- One who experiences sexual fulfillment with the same gender.
- Bisexual- One who experiences sexual fulfillment with the the same gender and opposite sex.
- Transsexual- Is a person of certain biologic gender who has the feeling of the opposite sex.
- Transvestite- An individual who desires to take on the role or wear the clothes of the opposite sex.
Premenstrual Tension Syndrome- PMS
Characterized by onset and appearance of one or more symptoms several days before the onset on menstruation- irritability, emotion tension, anxiety, mood changes, headache, breast tenderness, and water retension.
- Tublar structure located above scrotum.
- Erection- A destended and rigid state of an organ or part containing erectile tissue, the penis or clitoris.
Sexually Transmitted Infections
HPV- Human Papillomia Virus
Genital Warts- pail, soft, papillary lesions in, on, or around the genitals.
Women with this are at risk for cervical cancer.
Female Primary Sexual Dysfunction
Inhibited sexual Desire
Consists of an inhibition in sexual arousal so that congestion and vaginal lubrication are absent or minimal.
Dyspareunia= Painful Intercourse.
Methyldopa, Clonidine, Reserpine can decrease sexual desire, increase erectile failure, and increase erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction.
- Reproductive history, std's history of sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, self-care behaviors, etc.
- How do you feel about? sexual identity, sexual functioning, sexual image, sexual selfesteem, and sexual role performance.
Teaching about Sexuality and Sexual Health
Nursing Interventions pretaining to patient's sexuality involving teaching to promote sexual health.
What is circadian rhythm?
Complete a full cycle every 24 hours.
What occurs with the PNS Parasympthetic nervous system?
Dominates and decreases pulse, respirations, blood pressure, metabolic rate, and temperature.
- Sleep quality is effected and influenced by certain drugs.
- Decreased REM sleep with barbituates, amphetamines, and antidepressants.
- Also diuretics, steroids, caffine, asthma, and antihypertensives.
Is a condition characterized by an uncontrolled desire to sleep, can't be controlled by self.
CPAP- Continous Positive Airway Pressure
A mask and an air pump delivers air that keeps airway open during sleep.
Sleep walking, sleep talking, night terrors, and bruxism (grinding Teeth).
Who determines pain?
The patient or person experiencing it.
Types of Pain-
Chronic- pain can be limited, intermittent, or persistent, and last beyond normal healing time.
Referred- Is in one part of the body, but is manifest or precieved in another part.
Phantom- Pain from a non-existent limb or part that is no longer attached to the body.
Modulation of Pain
Endorphins-They are powerful pain blocking chemical that have prolonged analgesic effects and produce euphoria.
Components of a Pain Assessment
Addiction to medication, given routinely, better to deal with the pain that the side effects of the drug, better to wait til the pain gets bad, and I don't want to bother anyone.
Duration, location, quantity and intensity, quality, time, aggravation, allevaiting, physiolocic indacatiors, behavioral responses, and effect on activity and life style.
Nonpharamacological Relief Measures of Pain
- Cutaneous Stimulation
- Therpeutic Touch
Pharmacological Relief Measures
Is a pharmaceutical agent that relieves pain.
Is the energy required to carry on the involuntary activities of the body at rest.
2000-3000 mL/Day for adults. Usually equals water output.
Decreased Food Intake
Limiting food intake or calorie intake.
The lack of appetite, may be related to systemic and local diseases and numerous psychosocial causes, fear, anxiety, depression, and pain.
Nursing Process: Implementation
Serve fresh frequent meals, provide encouragment, (Control pain, nausea, and depression with medications), provide comfortable postion, etc.
Providing Nutrition in Special Situation
Clear Liquid Diet=
They are a variety of normal and modified diets available.
Clear Liquid Diet- Contains only foods that are clear liquids at room or body temperature: gelatin, fat-free broth, bouillon, ice pops, clear juices, carbonated beverages, coffee, and tea.
Providing Enteral Nutition
Tube Feeding Administration
Oral feeding is the most preferred and most effective method for feeding patients.
NG tube & NI tube- puts food in stomach or in in intestines.
Based on patients physical, medical, and nutritional condition.
Nursing Considerations with Tube Feedings
Promoting Patient Saftey
- CHECK Tube Placement: Xray, external marking, PH test, and aspirate.
- Check residual- Gastric Contents.
- Assess abdomen.
- Patient sit in upright position.
- Prevent contamination during feedings.
- Medications may be given through feeding tube.
Providing Parenteral Nutrition
Total Parenteral Nutrition=
Is the administration of nutritional support via the intravenous route.
TPN- Is highly concentrated, hypertonic nurtient solution.
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