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The uppermost layer of the earth's crust is:
Soils are formed by chemical, physical, and biological ____ that serve to slowly break rock or parent material into smaller particles.
(The lay of the land); has a great effect upon soil type and formation.
A specific layer in the soil which measures parallel to the soil surface and possesses physical characteristics which differ from the layers above and beneath.
A function of a range of geological, chemical and biological processes and occurs over long time periods is:
Soil horizon formation.
____, ____, and ____ aid in developing soils by providing airation, break down organic material, etc.
Fungus, insects, and burrowing mammals.
Mineral nutrients are obtained by plants through root uptake from the soil solution.
1. Weathering of soil minerals
2. Decomposition of plant residues, animal remains, and soil microorganisms
3. Application of fertilizers and liming materials
4. Application of manures, composts, boisolids (sewage sludge) and other organic amendments
5. N-fixation by legumes
6. Ground rock powders or dusts including greensand, basalt, and rock phosphate
7. Inorganic industrial byproducts
8. Atmospheric deposition; such as N and S from acid rain or N-fixation by lightning discharges
9. Deposition of nutrient-rich sediment from erosion and flooding.
Sources of soluble nutrients in the soil.
Soil types include:
Spodosols, Alfisols, Mollisols, Aridosols, Oxisols
Evergreen forest; subarctic climate soil:
Humid climate soil type:
Semiarid climate; soil type:
Desert climate; soil type:
Tropical rain forest climate; soil type:
Management of soils is:
Sustainable soil use.
The loss of soil from the land by the action of water, wind, ice, and chemicals. It is a natural process that is accelerated by farming on marginally dry land and deforestation.
The movement of water and dissolved materials down through the soil.
The ____ of the 1930's in the Western United States occurred as a result of increased wind erosion due to farming on poor land.
Methods of controlling erosion and mineral depletion:
- 1. conservation tillage
- 2. crop rotation
- 3. contour plowing
- 4. strip cropping
- 5. terracing
- 6. shelter belts.
The process of returning (repairing) soils back to a sustainable form.
The ____ provides farmers and ranchers to address soil, water, and related natural resource concerns on their lands in an environmentally beneficial and cost-effective manner.
Conservation Reserve Program
The ____ is a voluntary conservation program that emphasizes support for working grazing operations, enhancement of plant and animal biodiversity, and protection of grassland under threat of conversion to other uses.
Grassland Reserve Program.