Neurophysiology Review 2

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shutterbug81
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Neurophysiology Review 2
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2010-11-09 03:51:12
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Neurophys
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  1. Which side of the cerebellum affects movement of the right hand?
    Right
  2. Axons of the nervous system are described as afferent and efferent according to the direction in which they carry information. Which is an efferent projection?
    A. Sensory input to the spinal cord
    B. Interneurons in the spinal cord
    C. Motor output of the spinal cord
    C. Motor output of the spinal cord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. What are the advantages of MRI over CT scan?
    • Does not use X-irradiation
    • Yields more detailed map of the brain
    • Images of brain slices can be made in any plane
  4. What is neuroregulation?
    The process by which the neural plate becomes the neural tube
  5. Which of the following statements explains why neurons that fire together wire together?
    A synapse formed by a presynaptic axon is strengthened when the presynaptic axon is active at the same time that the postsynaptic neuron is strongly activated by other inputs.
  6. What are chemoreceptors?
    Chemically sensitive cells that serve as sensory receptors
  7. What changes occur in taste receptors when the membrane is depolarized during receptor potential?
    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels open, triggering the release of neurotransmitters
  8. Identify the difference between sweet receptors and bitter receptors
    Bitter receptor has only T2R and sweet receptors have T1R2 and T1R3
  9. What is population coding?
    Large number of neurons to specify the properties of stimuli
  10. More than 90% of receptor cells respond to two or more basic tastes, reflecting a relatively unselective process. (T/F)
    True
  11. Which cells in the retina have axons that leave the retina?
    Ganglion Cells
  12. What is the difference between ON-center ganglion cells and OFF-center ganglion cells?
    ON-center ganglion cells receive input from ON bipolar cells while OFF-center ganglion cells receive input from OFF bipolar cells
  13. A center-surround receptive field consists of concentric circles with antagonistic responses to presence or absense of light (T/F)
    True
  14. Which of the following is an example of parallel processing in the central visual system?
    a. Simultaneous input from two eyes provides the central visual system with information
    b. Independent streams of information arise from the ON-center and OFF-center ganglion cells in each retina
    a. Simultaneous input from two eyes provides the central visual system with information
  15. Which of the following is the common characteristic in the receptive fields in the ganglion cells of the retina, the LGN, and striate cortex neurons in layer IVC?
    A. Center surround antagonism
    B. Optimal orientation of a bar of light
    C. Radial column of cells with pia to white matter
    D. Elongated bar of light moves across the receptive field
    A. Center surround antagonism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Susan fell down the staircase and injured her head, causing a transection of the left opitc nerve. What is the consequence of this lesion?
    Blindness in the left eye
  17. Which of the following is the major source of synaptic input to the LGN?
    A. Neurons in the brain stem
    B. Extrastriate cortex
    C. Retinal ganglion cells axons
    D. Striate cortex
    D. Striate cortex
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Axons that remain on the same side of the brain as they project centrally are called_______ whereas fibers that cross to the opposite side are called_____
    • Ipsilateral
    • Contralateral
  19. Which of the following contributes to the pressure at the oval window being 20 times greater than that at the tympanic membrane?
    A. ossicles act like levers
    B. sound waves fall directly on the oval window
    C. area of oval window is larger than typanic membrane
    D. air has more inertia than fluid
    A. ossicles act like levers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which localization process is used for sounds in the range of 20-2000 Hz?
    Interaural time delay
  21. Which of the following is crucial for tilt sensitivity of the macula?
    A. ampulla
    B. macula
    C. otoliths
    D. saccule
    C. otoliths
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Which of the following is the function of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR)?
    A. fixes sight on target during body movement by adjusting head, eye, and body positions
    B. suppresses activity in the extraocular muscles in the dark
    C. responds to changes in eye movement by adjusting body positions
    A. fixes sight on target during body movement by adjusting head, eye, and body positions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. What role does the sensory motor cortex play in maintaining our perception of equilibrium and the execution of complex, coordinated movements?
    Maintaining a representation of body position and orientation in space
  24. Which of the following is a brain mechanism for encoding sound intensity?
    A. firing rates of auditory neurons
    B. both
    C. number of active neurons
    B. both
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Which of the following has large receptive fields covering an entire finger or half the palm?
    A. Meissner's corpuscles
    B. Merkel's disks
    C. Pacinian corpuscles
    D. Krause end bulbs
    C. Pacinian corpuscles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. What is two point discrimination?
    The smalles distance between two points that can be differentiated by the somatic sensory system
  27. Identify the disorder that causes inability to recognize common objects by feeling them even though they can be recognized by sight or sound
    Astereognosia
  28. To which stimuli do the majority of nociceptors respond?
    Mechanical, thermal, and chemical
  29. Information about pain and temperature is conducted more rapidly than information about touch and proprioception (T/F)
    False
  30. The are of skin innervated by the right and left dorsal roots of a single spinal segment is called _________
    Dermatome
  31. What is the consequence of knocking out critical proteins of the olfactory cAMP pathway in mice?

    A. Anosmia
    B. Channels in the cilia are sensitized
    C. Odorants diffuse away
    A. Anosmia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Identify the causative agent for acidity or sourness:
    protons
  33. What is the function of odorant-binding proteins in the mucus?
    Concentrate oderants
  34. A transection of the optic chiasm results in the loss of which visual field?

    A.Partial loss of right or left field
    B.Peripheral vision
    C.Complete loss of either the right or left field
    D.None of the above
    B.Peripheral vision
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. Mr. Stewart underwent a surgery to remove a tumor in his brain. During the surgery, lesions developed in the optic radiations. What is the potential impact of these lesions? Choose the correct option.

    A.Color loss
    B.Blindness
    C.Shape perception
    D.Peripheral vision loss
    B.Blindness
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Case Study: Roger, age 53, was a healthy man with normal vision. He complained that he often saw a flash of light when startled in a dark room. He was unable to explain the perceived flash of light. What is the reason for the perceived flash of light?

    A.An AP was evoked from spurious light in the room.
    B.The other 20% of the synaptic connections evoke responses in the LGN.
    C.The major 80% of the excitatory synapses to the LGN have been evoked.
    D.Direct input from the primary visual cortex.
    B.The other 20% of the synaptic connections evoke responses in the LGN.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. James, age 22, was riding a motorbike when he had an accident. A neuropsychological test revealed that James suffered extensive damage to area V4 in the ventral stream. What is the most likely deficit resulting from a V4 lesion?

    A.Total vision
    B.Color perception
    C.Peripheral vision
    D.Motion perception
    B.Color perception
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Which of the following is the most likely basis of visual perception?

    A.Decussation at the optic chiasm, projecting the left visual field to the right brain and the right field to the left brain
    B.Binocular neurons in striate cortex
    C.Hierarchical organization of visual receptive fields culminating in highly specialized cells such as grandmother cells
    D.Concerted activity of many neurons through out the visual pathways
    D.Concerted activity of many neurons through out the visual pathways
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. B.Concerted activity of many neurons through out the visual pathways

    A.High-intensity sound waves.
    B.Low-frequency sound waves.
    C.High-frequency sound waves.
    D.Low-intensity sound waves.
    C.High-frequency sound waves.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Which of the following is a brain mechanism for encoding sound intesity?

    -a.Number of active neurons.
    B.Firing rates of auditory neurons.
    C.A & B.
    D.None of the above.
    C.A & B. (Number of active neurons and firing rates of auditory neurons
  41. What is the auditory attenuation reflex?

    A.Damage of inner hair cells caused by loud sounds.
    B.Unilateral loss of A1 caused by loud sounds.
    C.Contraction of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles to make the chain of ossicles more rigid, diminishing sound conduction.
    D.Contraction of the tensor tympani and stapedius to make the chain of ossicles more rigid, amplifying sound conduction.
    C.Contraction of the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles to make the chain of ossicles more rigid, diminishing sound conduction.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What are mechanoreceptors?

    A.Sensitive to high frequency vibrations
    B.Sensitive to mechanical movements
    C.Sensitive to physical distortion
    D.Sensitive to smooth, mechanical surfaces
    C.Sensitive to physical distortion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Bitterness
  44. Saltiness
  45. Sourness
  46. Cerebral Spinal Fluid
  47. Ear
  48. Cochlea
  49. Olfactory Receptor
  50. Smell
  51. Vestibular System
  52. Vision
  53. Optic Chiasm

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