cardiovascular chapter 8
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localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
- Loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation
- cardi: heart
- -ac: pertaining to, relating to
Cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation.
Inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia.
soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur.
Any disease or weakening of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function
- cardi/o: heart
- -pathy: disease
causes of cardiomyopathy include viral or bacterial infections, metabolic disorders, or general systemic disease.
thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enought to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure.
Narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs
thromb: blood clot
- -osis: abnormal condition;
- increased (used primarily with blood cells)
ejection fraction (EF)
Calculation of how much blood a vintricle can eject with one contraction.
The left ventricualr EF averages 50% to 70% in healthy hearts but can be markedly reduced if part of the heart muscle dies, as evident after an MI or in cardiomyopathy or valvular heart disease.
heart failure (HF)
Failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
HF is commonly caused ny impaired coronary blood flow, cardiomyopathies, and heart valve disease.
Mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel.
Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contactions.
fibrillation is commonly corrected with a defibrillator.
arrest of bleeding or circulation
-stasis: standing still
excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood
- hyper-: excessive, above normal
- lipid: fat
- -emia: blood condition
the term hypercholesterolemia refers to elevation of chloesterol in the blood. it has been associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic
HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential hypertension
hypertensive heart disease
Any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, inclding left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cariac arrhythmias, and heart failure
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
Implantable battery -powered device tha monitors and automatically corrects ventricualr tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart.
In ventricular fibrillation, the heart quivers rather than beats, and blood is not pumped to the brain. unless treatment is received within 5 to 10 minutes, ventricualr fibrillation causes death.
area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply.
local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction.
mitral valve porlapse (MVP)
common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation
common signs and symptoms of MVP include palpitations of the heart and, occasionally, panic attacks with pounding heartbeat. becasue of the possibility of valve infection, prophylactic treatment with antibiotics is suggested before undergoing invasive procedures sush as dental work.
chemical radiocative material used as tracer to follow a substance through the body or structure
sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," "fluttering," "skipped beats," or a pounding feeling in the chest
patent ductus arteriousus
failure of the ductus arteriousus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary (lung) artery
circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
tetralogy of fallot
congenital anomaly consisting of four elements:
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