cardiovascular chapter 8

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cardiovascular chapter 8
2010-11-09 00:02:15
cardiovascular chapt

cardiovascular chapter 8
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  1. aneurysm
    localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
  2. arrest
    condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
  3. cariac arrest
    • Loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation
    • cardi: heart
    • -ac: pertaining to, relating to
  4. circulatory arrest
    Cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation.
  5. arrhythmia
    Inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrhythmia.
  6. bruit
    soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur.
  7. cardiomyopathy
    Any disease or weakening of the heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function

    • cardi/o: heart
    • my/o:muscle
    • -pathy: disease

    causes of cardiomyopathy include viral or bacterial infections, metabolic disorders, or general systemic disease.
  8. catheter
    thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enought to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure.
  9. coarctation
    Narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
  10. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

    thromb: blood clot

    • -osis: abnormal condition;
    • increased (used primarily with blood cells)
  11. ejection fraction (EF)
    Calculation of how much blood a vintricle can eject with one contraction.

    The left ventricualr EF averages 50% to 70% in healthy hearts but can be markedly reduced if part of the heart muscle dies, as evident after an MI or in cardiomyopathy or valvular heart disease.
  12. heart failure (HF)
    Failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs

    HF is commonly caused ny impaired coronary blood flow, cardiomyopathies, and heart valve disease.
  13. embolus
    Mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas, tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel.
  14. fibrillation
    Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contactions.

    fibrillation is commonly corrected with a defibrillator.
  15. hemostasis
    arrest of bleeding or circulation

    hemo/o: blood

    -stasis: standing still
  16. hyperlipidemia
    excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

    • hyper-: excessive, above normal
    • lipid: fat
    • -emia: blood condition

    the term hypercholesterolemia refers to elevation of chloesterol in the blood. it has been associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis.
  17. hyepertension (HTN)
    common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic

    HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential hypertension
  18. hypertensive heart disease
    Any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, inclding left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cariac arrhythmias, and heart failure
  19. implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
    Implantable battery -powered device tha monitors and automatically corrects ventricualr tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart.

    In ventricular fibrillation, the heart quivers rather than beats, and blood is not pumped to the brain. unless treatment is received within 5 to 10 minutes, ventricualr fibrillation causes death.
  20. infarct
    area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply.
  21. ischemia
    local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction.
  22. mitral valve porlapse (MVP)
    common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of the mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation

    common signs and symptoms of MVP include palpitations of the heart and, occasionally, panic attacks with pounding heartbeat. becasue of the possibility of valve infection, prophylactic treatment with antibiotics is suggested before undergoing invasive procedures sush as dental work.
  23. radioisotope
    chemical radiocative material used as tracer to follow a substance through the body or structure
  24. palpitation
    sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping," "fluttering," "skipped beats," or a pounding feeling in the chest
  25. patent ductus arteriousus
    failure of the ductus arteriousus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary (lung) artery
  26. perfusion
    circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
  27. tetralogy of fallot
    congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: