Bio Anthro midterm 2 pt 2

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jenniferstonge
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48367
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Bio Anthro midterm 2 pt 2
Updated:
2010-11-09 00:57:02
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biological anthropology
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bio anthro midterm 2
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  1. What are stable isotopes?
    Forms of oxygen and carbon in different proportions depending on environmental conditions.
  2. What is the extimated age of the earliest hominins?
    6-7 mya
  3. What is the difference between the old view and the new view on the number of species?
    • The Old View: Human evolution with relatively few species and fairly linear
    • The New View: Human evolution extremely complicated & species-rich
  4. What are the three Pre-Australopithecines?
    • Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    • Orrorin tugenensis
    • Ardipithecus ramidus
  5. Sahelanthropus tchadensis: how old are they and what are their defining characteristics?
    • Dated - 7 mya
    • Small Brain (<400 cm3)
    • Massive browridges & cranial crests
    • Small face & Anterior dentition
    • Forward (inferior) foramen magnum (suggestive of bipedalism)
  6. Orrorin tugenensis (“Millennium Man”): how old are they and what are their defining characteristics?
    • Dated - 6 mya
    • Very little cranial material but femurand other post-cranial fossils indicativeof habitual biped
    • Ape-like teeth
  7. Ardipithecus ramidus: how old are they and what are their defining characteristics?
    • Dated - 4.4 mya
    • Paleoecology: Woodland environment
    • 40% Skeleton + pieces of 36 individuals
    • Small brain (300-350 cm3) with relativelyunspecialized teeth and small canines
    • Unique foot—bipedal adaptations & graspingbig toe
    • Partially terrestrial, omnivorous/frugivorous

    • Habitual biped:
    • Forward (inferior) foramen magnum
    • Arm not weight-bearing
    • Pelvis and leg bones
    • But lower pelvis with climbing adaptations
  8. Australopithecus afarensis: how old are they?
    Dated - 3.8-3 mya
  9. What are the post-cranial features of Australopithecus afarensis?
    • Habitual bipedalism
    • Relatively long arms
    • Retention of arboreal adaptations (curved phalanges)
  10. What are the cranial features of Australopithecus afarensis?
    • Small brain (350-500 cm3)
    • Prognathic face
    • Cranial crests
    • U-shaped dental arcade
    • Canine reduced but still large (with semi-sectorial lower 1st premolar)
  11. Where were gracile and robust Australopithecines located?
    • Gracile: South Africa
    • Robust: South and East Africa
  12. Australopithecus africanus: how old are they and what are their defining characteristics?
    • Dated - 2-3 mya
    • More derived:
    • Small brain (450-500 cm3)
    • Gracile skull
    • Less prognathic face
  13. What are the three types of Robust Australopithecines, and where were they located?
    • A. robustus (South Africa)
    • A. boisei (East Africa)
    • A. aethiopicus (East Africa)
  14. Robust Australopithecines: how old are they and what are their defining characteristics?
    • Dated - 2.5-1 mya
    • Small Brain (~500 cm3)
    • Face, Jaws, & Teeth
  15. What are the robust dietary adaptations?
    • Sagittal Crest
    • Large Jaw & Molars (Megadont)
    • Broad Cheekbones
  16. What we know about australopithecines?
    • Habitual bipeds
    • Small-bodied (3 ½ - 4 ½ ft. tall)
    • Retention of arboreal adaptations
    • Pronounced sexual dimorphism
    • Unlikely monogamous
    • Primarily vegetarian (Hunted nothunter)
    • Limited tools & culture
    • Limited population size & distribution

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