IB psych key studies

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floss
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48386
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IB psych key studies
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2010-11-09 06:21:44
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IB Psychology
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Key studies and theorists for IB psychology new syllabus
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  1. Broca
    • 1861
    • Post mortem of brain damage victims
    • Resulted in location of Broca's area
    • Case studies - can't be generalised
  2. Kiecolt-Glaser
    • Stress
    • 1984
    • 2500 men in the navy, self report, asked about stressful life experiences, measured general health for the next six months
    • Large participan size, but limited - all men, all similar age, all in the navy
    • Self report
  3. Selye
    • Rats guy! Stress
    • 1930
    • Injected rats with various chemicals daily, and some none at all
    • The repeated stress of injection lead to death, regardless of the substance injected
    • Animals - can't be generalised
    • Ethics?
  4. Bouchard et al
    • Minnesota twin study
    • 1990
    • Longitudonal study
    • Compared intelligence with twins and stuff
    • Found greatest intelligence correlation between indentical twins reared together - concluded that intelligence was nature AND nurture. 70% inherited
    • Longitdonal study - no cause-and-effect
  5. Maguire et al
    • London taxi drivers
    • 2000
    • MRI'ed hoppocampuses of London taxi drivers, compared them to those who didnt drive taxis
    • Found not a loss, but rather a restructing of brain matter
  6. Bartlett
    • War of the Ghosts
    • 1932
    • North American Indian study
    • Found that people attach meaning to information, by fitting it into schemata etc.
    • Only qualitiative data
    • Well supported by more recent research
    • Procedure instructions were a bit vague to participants
  7. HM
    • Suffered from epilepsy as a child
    • Extensive brain surgery - hippocampus and surrouding areas removed
    • Anterograde amnesia - couldnt form new memories
    • Distinction between LTM and STM
    • Biological factors affecting memory
  8. Clive Wearing
    • Rare disease that attacked certain parts of his brain
    • Anterograde AND retrograde amnesia
    • Can still speak, play music etc
    • Can't remember his children
    • Evidence for LTM/STM distinction
    • Evidence for different types of memory (semantic, procedural, episodic etc)
  9. Anderson and Pichert
    • 1978
    • Schema study
    • Told a group of participants a story about a house.
    • Told to consider it from various points of view (buyer or theif)
    • Recall tested
    • Some asked to reconsider story from another point of view
    • Recall tested, those who switched remembered more
    • Ecological validity etc etc
  10. Loftus and Palmer
    • 1974
    • Car speed/leading questions
  11. Yuille and Cutshall
    • 1986 - contradictory to Loftus and Palmer
    • Involved witnesses of a daylight robbery
    • Real situation - nice ecologicial validity
    • Only participants who agreed
    • After a long period of time
  12. Cole and Scribner
    • 1974
    • Kpelle people - Liberia
    • Two types of children - schooled and unschooled
    • Schooled chunk items more, and hence remember more, like US students
    • Unschooled children remember stories etc better.
    • Different races have different memory strategies
  13. Bandura
    • Bobo doll experiment
    • Social Learning theory
    • 1961
    • 3 groups - aggressive model, non-agressive model, no model
    • Half observed same sex models
    • Mildly irritated
    • Children in the aggressive model showed more aggression
    • Artificial, ethical issues, good IV/DV control
  14. Asch
    • 1951 conformity
    • 32% rate of conformity
    • Artificiality
    • COnformity was the 'in-thing' in the 1950s
    • Possibility of demand characteristics
  15. Jenness
    • 1932
    • Beans in a jar study
  16. Hoefstede
    • 1973
    • IBM participants
    • self-report
    • Cultural dimensions
    • eg individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, power distance, longterm/short term orientation, etc
  17. Kimball and Zabruck
    • 1986 - Random island off Canada, the one emailed to Darcy
    • Television introduced recently to a remote village
    • Two years later, it was found that the aggressiveness of the children had significantly increased
    • Naturalistic study
  18. Mead
    • 1935
    • Study of three tribes in PNG
    • One tribe entirely masculine, one very feminine, one with an apparent swap of gender roles
    • Naturalistic study
  19. Moscovici
    • 1969
    • Blue green study - ambiguous case
    • Groups of 6, 2 confeds
    • 8.42% group conformity
    • Long term effects as well
  20. Tajfel
    • 1971
    • Kandisky vs Klee
    • Boys assigned randomly to group
    • Willing to give higher rewards to own group
    • Out-group rated less likeable
  21. Sherif
    • 1954
    • Robbers' Cave experiment

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