Psychology Definitions

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Psychology Definitions
2010-11-09 04:13:25
Psychology Definitions

Glossary of Terms
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  1. Clinical psychology
    a specialised area of psychology that deals with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and mental disorders
  2. Mental Disorder
    a significant impairment of a person’s thoughts, emotions or behaviour which causes distress to themself or other people. Also affects their day to day functioning.
  3. Diagnosis
    the process of identifying and classifying an illness or disorder on the basis of the
  4. Therapies
    the treatment of physical or mental disorders or diseases. Therapies are drug-free.
  5. Close-ended questions
    usually require a brief or simple answer often involving one word such as yes or no.
  6. Open-ended questions
    require more than a single-word response. Often begin with ‘how’ or ‘what’
  7. Reflective listening
    When a clinical psychologist demonstrates to the client that they have heard what they said and understand their point of view.
  8. Paraphrasing
    The act of repeating back or restating what the client has said to check for understanding.
  9. Intelligence Tests
    Typically measure whatever skills and abilities the author of the test thinks constitutes intelligence.
  10. Personality tests
    instruments or techniques used to evaluate or asses personality
  11. Projective tests
    an assessment tool that involves having someone make up a story or describe what they see in response to unstructured stimuli such as ambiguous pictures, inkblots or play materials.
  12. Clinical-case formation
    a statement written by the clinical psychologist that explains how a client’s problem has developed and what factors are keeping the problem going, which helps to identify the most effective treatment strategies.
  13. Mania
    Consists of over-activity a reduced need for sleep; a mood that is either elevated or irritable; and grandiose and self-important ideas.
  14. Hypomania
    has the same symptom as mania; however the symptoms last no longer than four days.
  15. Cognitive-behaviour therapy
    the term used to describe a psychological treatment which is based on the assumption that the way people feel and behave is largely a product of the way they think.
  16. Forensic psychology
    a specialised area of psychology that applies to psychological theory and skills to the understanding and functioning of the legal and criminal justice system
  17. Dangerousness
    refers to the likelihood of a person committing a serious act of violence, with little provocation, in a variety or real-life situations.
  18. Mental impairment
    a legal term that refers to a person having a mental disorder or an intellectual disability.
  19. Personality disorder
    a type of mental disorder characterised by a disturbed personality
  20. Anxiety
    a state of heightened physical and emotional arousal associated with a feeling of apprehension, worry or uneasiness that something is wrong or something unpleasant may happen.
  21. Obsessions
    recurring upsetting or scary thoughts or images that come into a person’s mind even when they do not want them to.
  22. Compulsions
    behaviours or rituals that are repeated over and over, usually in exactly the same way, in order to reduce the anxiety caused by obsessions.
  23. Stuctural Clinical judgement
    a method of assessing an offender’s risk of future violent behaviour.
  24. Doli incapax
    If a child is 10-14 years old, they are considered incapable of committing a criminal act. They are not deemed criminally responsible unless the prosecution can prove they had the mens rea beyond reasonable doubt.
  25. Agoraphobia
    an intense, persistent and irrational fear of being in places or situation from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing.
  26. True Positive
    correct prediction that the individual will be violent
  27. True Negative
    a correct prediction that the individual will not be violent
  28. False Postive
    incorrectly identifies someone as posing a future risk of violence when in fact they do not.
  29. False Negative
    incorrectly identifies someone as posing no future risk of violence when in fact they do.
  30. Expert witness
    a person who has specialised knowledge, skill or experience in the information they present before a court
  31. Expert opinion
    consists of facts from the domain of the expert witness’s expertise.