Introduction to Biotech

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Introduction to Biotech
2010-11-09 11:04:44


Midterm 2
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  1. What is plant tissue culture?
    • It is sterile invitro culture to grow plant parts such as:
    • organs, embryos, seeds and single cells on solidified or liquid media.
  2. Invitro culture can occur with what type of cells?
    differentiated and undifferentiated
  3. What are the basic steps of plant tissue culture?
    • Remove a piece of tissue from plant (explant)
    • Dedifferentiation
    • Redifferentiation
    • The plant is transferred to soil to complete growth
  4. What is dedifferentiation?
    Placing the explant on a specific nutrient medium to force the cells of the explant to become undifferentiated and form callus tissue
  5. What is redifferentiation?
    Callus tissue is transferred to another nutrient medium where it is allowed to differentiate into plant tissue
  6. What is totipotency?
    The ability of a plant cell to give rise to a whole pant through dedifferentiation and redifferentiation.
  7. What are the six types invirtro plant cultures?
    • Cell Culture (two types) -Culture of differentiated tissue from explant -Culture of cells or cell aggregates in liquid medium.
    • Protoplast culture- (plant cell with cell wall removed)
    • Embryo Culture
    • Seed Culture
    • Organ Culture
  8. What is micropropagation?
    It is invitro colonal propagation to multiply desirable plants.
  9. What are the four stages of micropropagation?
    • Initiation of sterile explant culture
    • Shoot initiation
    • Root initiation
    • Transfer of plants to sterile soil or other substrate under controlled conditions.
  10. What is a Somatic Embryogenesis (Somatic Embryos)?
    A technique to produce embryo like structure (Embryoids) from plant tissue or callus
  11. What are chemicals from plants used for?
    Pharmaceuticals, herbal medicines, cosmetics
  12. What are other uses of tissue culture?
    • Protoplast fusion to create new combination
    • To create genetic variability by somaclonal variation
    • Germplasm storage (preserving plant species)
  13. When a plant acquires a foreign gene it is called what?
  14. What is the general method for transformation?
    • Infect cell with bacteria
    • Selected transformed cells
    • Grow transformed cells to form cell callus
    • Initiate root and shoot formations
    • Pick individuals to test for gene expression
  15. What are the six big genetically engineered traits?
    • Herbicide Resistance
    • Insect Resistance
    • Virus Resistance
    • Altered Oil Content
    • Delayed Fruit Ripening
    • Pollen Control- Inducing male sterility
  16. What are the two main things that are a part of the Biotech Revolution?
    • Stress resistance gene
    • Nutritionally Enhanced Plants
  17. What are some causes for concern with genetically engineered foods?
    • Allergic reaction
    • Food Selection Problem
    • Developing antibiotic resistance
    • Deleted genes in plants cause side effect in humans
    • Side effect on plant from unwanted DNA from cloning vectors
    • Plant cross contamination leading to damage ecosystem
  18. What is molecular farming?
    A technique to use plants to produce pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and other valuable compounds
  19. Why use plants instead of bacteria?
    • It is cost effective
    • -just involves planting seeds
    • -proteins are produced in high quantity
    • -foreign proteins stored in seeds are very stable
    • -not likely to be contaminated
  20. Why are they designing Edible Vaccines?
    • Reduce costs
    • No Refrigeration
    • Easy to handle and administer
  21. What are biopolymers and how can plants be involved with them?
    Environmentally friendly plastic. Plant seeds may be a potential source for plastics that could be produced and easily extracted.