Chapter 46 Animal Sensory Systems and Movement

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Chapter 46 Animal Sensory Systems and Movement
2010-11-10 00:48:32
Chapter Animal Sensory Systems Movement

Chapter 46 Animal Sensory Systems and Movement
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  1. pheromone
    signal between individuals that causes change in physiology or behavior
  2. transduction
    convert external stimulus to internal signal
  3. How do you sense the environment?
    • 1. transduction
    • 2. amplification of signal
    • 3. transmission to central nervous system
    • 4. integration
  4. nocireceptors
    sense dangerous stimuli
  5. thermoreceptors
    sense temp
  6. mechanoreceptors
    sense touch or pressure
  7. chemoreceptors
    sense specific molecules/class of molecules
  8. photoreceptors
    sense specific waves of light
  9. electroreceptors
    detect electrical fields
  10. depolarized
    the interior of the cell becomes more positive
  11. hyperpolarized
    interior more negative than resting potential
  12. How does the action potential react to changes in intensity of the sensory input?
    it increases in firing rate
  13. How does the brain interpret all of the electrical signals?
    • receptor cells are very highly specific
    • each sensory neuron sends its signal to a specific portion of the brain
  14. frequency
    number of pressure waves per second
  15. pitches
    different sound frequencies
  16. statocyst
    • helps to maintain correct orientation in space
    • ex. if a crab is flipped over, the calcium-rich particle (statolith) presses against nerve hairs (setae) that signals the body to flip the crab back over
  17. Effect of direct pressure on plasma membrane
    • causes the ion channels to distort, either closing or opening the way for ion flow
    • bending causes ions to open
  18. Hair cells
    • comprised of many stiff outgrowths (sterocilia) and one kinocilium
    • depolarization due to pressure causes inflow of calcium, increasing amount of neurotransmitter released
  19. Three main parts of the ear
    • Outer ear
    • Middle ear
    • Inner ear
  20. Fxn of outer ear
    funnel sound into ear canal
  21. tympanic membrane
    • "eardrum"
    • vibrates back and forth due according to sound wave
    • vibrations pass to the ear ossicle (3 bones in middle ear)
  22. Oval window
    • separates middle and inner ear
    • carries vibrations into the fluid inside a chamber called the cochlea
  23. Fxn of middle ear
    • amplifies sound
    • tympanic membrane larger than oval window (same force, smaller size is more heavily affected)
    • three ossicles act as levers, amplifying the vibrations
  24. Basilar membrane
    • membrane in middle chamber of cochlea
    • certain parts vibrate differently according to the different frequencies
    • brain receives signals from different hair cells and interprets them differently
  25. How do elephants communicate?
    infrasonic sounds (very low) that can travel very far
  26. Echolocation
    using sound echoes (sonar) to navigate
  27. Compound eye
    composed of hundreds of ommatidia (functional units of insect eyes)
  28. Structure of vertebrate eye
    • cornea - transparent sheet of connective tissue
    • iris - colored, round muscle; controls amt of light entering the eye
    • pupil - hole in the middle of iris
    • retina - back of the eye; contains photoreceptor cells (rods or cones)
  29. What is special about the vertebrate eye?
    • the photoreceptors are placed in the far end of the eye, allowing light to pass through many layers of neurons before it reaches the cells
    • this creates a blindspot where the axons have to exit the eye
  30. Rod cells (in eye)
    detect dim light
  31. Cone cells (in eye)
    detect color
  32. fovea
    place in retina that only has cones
  33. opsin
    transmembrane protein that contains retinal (pigment)
  34. What causes color blindness?
    • a deficiency in specific opsin (they only sense distinct wavelengths of light)
    • blue, green, red (short, medium, long)
  35. Gustation
    sense of taste (through chemoreceptors)
  36. umami
    "meaty" sense from MSG
  37. glomeruli
    little balls that sense smell