Volume 3 Chapter 1

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amerelman
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48431
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Volume 3 Chapter 1
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2010-11-09 11:37:44
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Volume 3 Chapter 1
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  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    A disease characterized by a decreased ability of the lungs to perform ventilation
  2. Upper Airway
    • Nasal Cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
  3. Lower Airway
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Alveoli
  4. Carina
    Point at which the trachea bifurcates into the right and left mainstem bronchi
  5. Surfactant
    Compound secreted by the lungs that contributes to the elastic properties of pulmonary tissues
  6. Process of Gas Exchange
    • Ventilation
    • Diffusion
    • Perfusion
  7. Ventilation
    Mechanical process of moving air in and out of the lungs
  8. pH
    Potential of hydrogen. Measured releative alkalinity or acididity.
  9. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration
  10. Perfusion
    The circulation of blood through the capillaries
  11. Hemoglobin
    Transport protein that carries oxygen in the blood
  12. Oxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin with oxygen bound
  13. Deoxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin with no oxygen bound
  14. Carbaminohemoglobin
    Hemoglobin with CO2 bound
  15. Respiration
    Exchange of gases between living organism and environment
  16. Pneumothorax
    Collection of air in the pleural space of the chest
  17. Hemothorax
    Blood in pleural space
  18. Flail Chest
    One or more ribs fractured in two or more places creating an unattached rib segment
  19. Apnea
    Abscence of breathing
  20. Hypoxia
    State in which insufficient oxygen is available to meet the oxygen requirements of cells
  21. General Impression of Respiratory Status
    • Position
    • Color
    • Mental status
    • Ability to speak
    • Respiratory effort
  22. Pallor
    Paleness
  23. Diaphoresis
    Sweaty
  24. Cyanosis
    Bluish discoloration of skin due to decrease in oxygenation
  25. Nasal Flaring
    Excessive widening of the nares
  26. Tracheal Tugging
    Retraction of neck tissues of the neck due to airway obstruction or dyspnea
  27. Asphyxia
    A decrease in the amount of oxygen and an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide as a result of some interference with respiration
  28. Dyspnea
    Shortness of breath
  29. Tachycardia
    Rapid HR
  30. Orthopnea
    Dyspnea while supine
  31. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Dyspnea
    Short episodes of dyspnea that occur at night and interrupt sleep
  32. Hemoptysis
    Expectoration of blood from the respiratory tree
  33. Crepitus
    Crackling sounds
  34. Subcutaneous Emphysema
    Prescence of air in subcutaneous tissue
  35. Tactile Fremitus
    Vibratory tremors felt throughout the chest by palpation
  36. Tracheal Deviation
    Any position of the trachea other than midline
  37. Tachypnea
    Rapid respiration
  38. Bradypnea
    Slow respiration
  39. Capnography terms
    • Capnography: A graphic recording or display of capnometry over time
    • Capnograph: The device the measures expired CO2 levels
    • Capnogram: The waveform
    • End-tidal CO2: Measurement of CO2 concentration at end of respiration
    • PETCO2: Partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 in mixed gas solution
    • PaCO2: Partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood.
  40. Capnography Waveform
    • Phase I: Flat, respiratory baseline. No CO2. Late phase of expiration and early inspiration
    • Phase II: Respiratory upstroke. Appearance of CO2 in alveoli
    • Phase III: Highest amount of CO2. Plateau
    • Phase IV: Inspiration. Loss of CO2
  41. Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    Form of Pulmonary Edema that is caused by fluid accumulation in interstitial space within lungs.
  42. Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP)
    A method of holding the alveoli open by increasing expiratory pressure
  43. Obstructive Lung Diseases
    • Emphysema
    • Chronic bronchitis
    • Asthma
  44. Cor Pulmonale
    Hypertrophy of right ventricle resulting from disorders of the lung
  45. Polycythemia
    An excess of red blood cells
  46. Pleuritic Pain
    Sharp pain associatied with respiration
  47. Carboxyhemoglobin
    Hemoglobin with carbon monoxide bound

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