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Identify Prince Henry the Navigator.
- From Portugal
- First to promote voyages of exploration into the Atlantic
- Started the Age of Discovery
- Started a school in Spain that had cartographers, ship captains and scholars
The series of Holy Wars known as the __________ led to the rise of trade between the East and West.
There were 7 crusades all together, meant to take back the Holy land, it was the holy land cause Christ taught, lived, & died there.
The Portuguese where the best Cartographers.
Whats the name of Spain's Peninsula.
The Iberian Peninsula
The following are the ships Columbus first sailed with to the New World.
The Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria, which was Columbus's Flag ship.
- His expedition circumnavigated the globe in 3 years.
- He set out in 5 ships
- Discovered the Straits of Magellan spent 38 days in them
- Named the Pacific cause it was more peaceful than the straits
- Killed in the Philippines
- Only the Victoria made it back
Whats the name of the islands Magellan named in the Straits?
Tierra Del Un Fuego, which means the land of fire
As Magellan passed he saw bonfires lighting up the coast line of these islands.
The Aztecs at first mistook __________ for the God Quatsocoatl.
- Cortes, Fair Complexion, full red beard
- Montezuma sent gold, this was a mistake
- Cortes burnt his ships to motivate his people, either victory or death no escape.
Tenochticlan was the capitol of the _________ Empire.
They were told by there god to find an Eagle perched on a cactus eating a snake, they sent out until they found it, they did and built there city Tenochticlan which is modern day Mexico City.
Name the French possession in the New world at the end of the Age of Discovery.
- Great Lakes Region
- Mississippi River Valley
Of all the Europeans the __________ had the best relationship with the Indians.
Except the Iroquois cause Champlain took up the side of the Huron. This is why the Iroquois fought for the English during the French and Indian war.
The ____________ purchased Manhattan Island from the Indians.
- For $24, the Dutch thought the Indians stupid for selling so cheap
- The Indians thought the Dutch were stupid cause they bought something from the Indians that they didn't own.
What were the two Sacraments that were retained by Luther and Calvin?
They could find no scriptural basis for the remaining 5 sacraments.
The ___________ was the list of books banned by the Counter Reformation.
__________ found the Society of Jesus.
the priests were called Jesuit Priests
They distinguished themselves as _________ & ___________.
Very active in Italy, Spain, and especially in the New World and Asia, (French Canada)
Francis Baco favored the ___________ method of acquiring knowledge.
________ was the first scientist to use the telescope.
- In 1609 he made his own even though it was invented in Holland.
- Saw thing no human has seen before
Identify the things Galileo saw through the telescope
- Craters and Mountains on the moon
- Rings of Saturn
- Satellites of Jupiter -- Medicean Stars
- more stars than anyone thought possible
The first law of Planetary Motion states that the motion of planets are ___________.
__________ was the chief minister of Louie XIV.
- He wanted to make the King superior in Europe
- Le Ta Se Mio-- I am the State
The Palace of _________ was the Royal palace of King Louie XIV.
- Held Ten Thousand people
- All nobles were to live there so Louie can keep an eye on them.
What is King Louie XIV act of waking and going to sleep where the high Nobles where required to be present for.
- Lever-- to rise
- Couche Lever-- to sleep
Louie XIV waged __________ wars in an effort to restore France to its natural boundaries.
He never recovered the natural boundaries, and in the end lost Nova Scotia and New Foundland.
The ______________________ and Prince Eugene of Savoy were the most outstanding military commanders for the Grand Alliance during the war of Spanish Succession.
Duke of Marlborough--John Churchil
What is the Novum Organum?
The book written in Latin by Francis Bacon, describing his Induction Method.
What book did Des Carte write?
Discourse on Method
Describing the method of Deduction
What does Cogito Ergo Sum mean and who said it?
I think therefore I am, was said by Des Carte
What was Copernicus's book that he published in the year of his death?
Concerning the Revolution of Heavenly Speres
Identify Fans Hals
Dutch Painter, painted a Portrait of Des Carte
Identify Jan Vermeer
Genre Painter, painted the Maid Pouring Milk
Identify Dutch Painters
Portraits, landscapes corporations of still life, produced the most painters in ration to its population than any other country.
Identify Peter Paul Rubens
Flemish Painter, Flanders/Belgium, more variety than any other painter
mainly religious paintings, portraits, landscapes, mythological painting, animal/history
Where did Rubens have his studio
He lived a very luxurious lifestyle, most of his clients where royal and nobility, he had a sort of painting factory in Antwerp.
Dutch painter, Married Saskea who had money, popular while young until his wife died then he painted Night Watchmen which ruined his career
he had 62 self portraits
Spanish Painter Florid Baroque, court painter of Phillip IV of Spain, his studio was in the Royal Palace.
He painted the Las Meniner meaning the Maids of Honor depicting Phillips granddaughter princess margarita and 2 maids of honor
The painting interacted with the space in front of it, showing velazquez looking out and the king and queen looking in shown by their reflection in the mirror.
Identify Nicolas Poussin
French Painter, classical Baroque, Influenced by ancient roman ruins, reflected the classical world.
Et in Arcadia Ego which meant And I too lived in Arcadia, which was a region of Greece where it was a happy place to live, it was the dead talking to the living saying and i too was once alive.
He liked to Idealize the classical landscape to make it perfect.
Italian painter, florid baroque, died at 37
Single most influential painter of the entire baroque period
Mostly religious subjects, Violent contrast of light and dark colors, light colors used to bring out figures.
Paintings where the Calling of St. Matthew and the the Conversion of Paul, the catholic church did not approve of his use of common people in his paintings.
Died still being wanted for killing his friend over a tennis match
Sculptor, Architect italian
2nd only to michelangelo, florid baroque
10 stories of bronze in twisted columns, making a canopy above St. peters tomb, made from the Bronze of the pantheon.
- known for Piazzas and town Squares
- 4 rivers, fountain (Danube, Nile, Plate, Ganges)
- Did the inside of St. Peters Basillica
Identify the Pope that told Bernini to take the Bronze from the Pantheon
Pope Urban II
"The Barbarinis did what the Barbarians wouldn't do."
Florid, Classical, Restrained
Identify Rober Boyle
Father of Modern Chemistry, wrote the book, "The Skeptical Chemist" making fun of Alchemy.
Identify William Harvey
First to describe and explain the function of the Heart such as circulation.
who invented Calculus
Newton and Liebnets at the exact same time completely separate of each other.
Italian physicist/Astronomer, one of two greatest scientists of the Revolution.
First to point the telescope to outerspace in 1609
Came up with the Law of Falling Bodies which states that two bodies regardless of weight and size, will fall at the same rate of succession which is 32 feet per second.
Legend of the two cannon balls at the top of the Eiffel tower.
What did Galileo see when he pointed his telescope to space.
Rings of Saturn, satellites of Jupiter (medicean Stars), Mountains and Craters on the Moon (proving Aristotle wrong), phases of Venus, Solar spots, and more stars than any human had seen before.
"I think there are more stars than ever thought possible"
When he challenged scientists who believed in Aristotle's teachings they refused to look in the telescope.
What are the Scientific Societies that came out of the Scientific Revolution?
French Academy of Science and the Royal Society of London
These institutions encouraged scientific study and shared research with the scientific community.
What were the Advances in Mathematics from the Scientific Revolution.
- Calculus- Newton
- Analytical Geometry- Des Carte
Inventions during the Scientific Revolution
- Telescope- invented in Holland
- Microscope- Invented in Holland
- Thermometer- Invented by Galileo
Who wrote the Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy and what was its nickname.
Newton and the Principia
What is the Modern Scientific Method
A blending of Bacon's Induction Method and Des Carte's Deduction Method
Greatest scientific breakthrough of the Revolution is:
Polish Mathematician, decided that the Ptolemaic theory was wrong, it had two many complicated loops and circles to be natural
Figured out the 24 hr rotation of the earth and the one year revolution around the sun.
His only fault was that he believed the orbits where perfectly circular.
Wanted to prove Copernicus wrong, he did 20 year daily naked eye observations.
Made most of his discoveries using Mars, left all his work to Kepler
His observations proved Copernicus's theory correct
Took Brahe's work and made the 3 laws of planetary motion
Worked closely with Galileo
Kepler agreed with Copernicus and used Brahe's work to prove it
What are the 3 laws of Planetary motion
1. Planets have an elliptical motion
2. The closer a planet is to the sun the faster the planet orbits the sun
3.The larger the planetary body the slower it orbits.
- Greatest Scientist of the Revolution
- Called the Grand Synthesizer -"I grew on the Shoulders of Giants"
- 3 greatest discoveries before the age of 24
- 1.Law of Universal Gravitation
- 2.Compound nature of light, sun being the colors of the Rainbow
What is the Law of Universal Gravitation
Every particle in the universe is attracted to every other particle in the universe
That there was a glue of the universe that he did not know what it was or what causes it, we still don't know.
Protestant Countries after the Revolution
England, Scotland, Holland, Northern Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Denmark and Southern Ireland
These countries remain protestant to this day
Catholic countries after the Revolution
Italy, Spain, Belgium, Southern Germany, Austria, Hungary, Northern Ireland, Poland, and France
According to legend what did Galileo say at his second inquisition
Eppur Si Muone- meaning it does move
What was decided at the Council of Trent
- Reaffirmed Doctrines rather than compromise to the Protestants
- Virgin Birth of Christ
- Refused to give up art they actually embraced it with the baroque style
Which Catholic Pope started the effective leadership of the Counter Reformation.
Pope Paul III
Identify John Calvin
- French, lived in Geneva Switzerland
- Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion"(1536)
- Pre-destination- already decided who is saved and damned doesn't matter what you do.
- the ELECT where the ones pre-ordained to be in heaven
- He also attacked the use of Graven Images
Causes of Reformation
- Political- Rulers resented the temporal power of the church and the pope
- Economic-During poor times the church owned land in all nations. Rulers resented this cause no tax
- Intellectual Renaissance-revival of education brought questions
- Church Abuses
Church Abuses that spawned the Reformation
- Simony- Selling of Church offices
- Nepotism- Giving Church offices to their relatives
- Sale of Indulgence- Removal of punishments for sin through financial donations
- Indulgences- Removes amount of punishment for sins
Identify Martin Luther
- Augustinian Monk in Germany
- Professor of theology at the University of
- Heard about the Sale of Indulgences
What did Martin Luther think was necessary for salvation
Letter from Paul to the Romans saying that you can be saved by Faith alone
7 Catholic Sacraments
- Extreme Unction/Last Right
Old world diseases
- Chicken Pox
W/ in a century of Columbus's arrival 90% of the Indians where wiped out.
New World Diseases
Sailors brought to every port, killed millions in Europe and Asia
New World Flaura and Fauna
- Potatoes- Sweet and white
- Tomatoes-considered poisonous
Old World Gifts
- Horse-Revolutionized the indians way of life and made them dependent on the buffalo
- Citrus Trees
- Sugar Cane
English possessions in the New World
Entire East coast from Mississippi to the coast and from southern Canada all the south to Georgia.
Swedish possession in the New World
Fort Christina, Wilmington Delaware
Known for first bringing log cabin to America
Dutch possessions in the New World
New Amsterdam which was taken without the firing of a single shot renamed New York after the Duke of York.
Portugal's possessions in the New world
Spain's possessions in the New world
- All of S. America except Brazil
- Central America, Mexico
- Parts of North America- Florida, S.W. U.S.- Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada and California
- Islands in West indies- Puerto Rico, Cuba
- Henry Hudson
- English sailing for the Dutch Crown
- Captain of the Half Moon Bay
- Looked for the North West Passage and instead found Albany and the Hudson Bay.
- His crew mutinied and left him, his son, and loyal crew members adrift at sea in a row boat.
- Helped establish New Netherlands
- John Cabot
- Italian sailing for English Crown original name Giovanni Cabot
- He explored N.E. America for English claim, claimed whole East Coast for England looking for the North West Passage.
- Francis Drake
- Went South around S. America and up to miss San francisco bay and find Drakes bay. He discovered Cali for England calling it New Albion, but England never followed up. On his way back he attacked any spanish settlement and colony he could find, his ship was so heavily laden with gold it was tilting to one side, Queen Elizabeth came onto the ship and knighted him on the spot, Second person to circumnavigate and it took 3 years just like Magellan.
- Jacques Cartier
- Went up the St. Lawrence River and found Montreal, also looking for the North West Passage.
- Samuel De Champlain
- Found Quebec in 1608 "Father of New France"
- Chose side of Hurons against the Iroquois, they never forgave or forgot this and fought on the side of the English in French and Indian.
- Robert De La Salle
- In 1682 started north and traveled down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. He named the Mississippi River Valley "louisiana after King Louis XIV. Had vision of forts along the mississippi protecting spanish encroachment, on 2nd expedition he got loosed in texas and his crew mutinied and killed him.
- Antoine Cadillac
- In 1701 found what is now known as Detroit called it the "City of the Straights"
When was the Age of Discovery
What was the name of Marco Polo's Book
Marco Polo's Travels
He was locked up when he wrote this
What was the mission of the Explorers
To find a new all water route to Asia so they can stop dealing with the Italians in Venice and Genoa.
Bartolomeu Dias- Made it to the tip of Africa and called it the Cape of Storms, upon returning Prince Henry named it Cape of good Hope cause what it meant.
Vasco Da Gama- Made it all the way to India
Pedro Cabral- accidentally went to South America, claimed it for Portugal, then continued on to Asia.
Who discovered Madagascar?
- Columbus- Found New World
- Vespucci- First to call it New World
- Balboa- First European to lay eyes on the Pacific
- Ponce De Leon- Fountain of Youth
- Magellan- Circumnavigated the World
- Cortes- conquered the Aztecs
- Pizarro- Conquered the Incas
- Hernando De Soto- Explored Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas, Discovered miss. river, most cruel
- Juan Cabrillo- discovered San Diego
- Francisco Coronado- Explored AZ, N.M., TX, Ok, KS while looking for Cibola, First europeans to see Grand Canyon.
What is Western Civilization?
The civilization of Europe and al countries derived from Europe.
What did Europeans refer to China, Japan and India as?
Catha, Cipangu, Indies
Name of Aztec leader
There God was Quatzalcoatl
Name of Incan Ruler
Why was the war of Spanish succession fought?
Because king charles II of Spain chose the grandson of Louis XIV, Phillip of Anjou. The allies feared that Spain and France's throne would unite under a bourbon family.
when was the puritan revolution
who were the kings during the Puritan Revolution?
- James I- KJV of the Bible, started Divine right of kings
- Charles I- overthrown and beheaded, fighting stage of revolution
- Charles II- asked to come back, good reign
- James II- Roman Catholic, peacefully overthrown and replaced with his daughter Mary and her Husband William from Holland, who were protestant. They made england gov't what it is today.
How is the English gov't structured after William and Mary?
- House of Lords
- House of Commons
- Prime Minister
- Cabinet- made up of both parties
It highly favored the parliament
What were the two sides of the Puritan Revolution and who won?
- Cavaliers- backed the king, Nobles, high anglican church
- Parliamentarians- backed the Parliament
Parliamentarians won, made harsh laws, outlawing dancing, theatre.
Identify Oliver Cromwell.
He was the general that led the parliamentarians to victory, was a dictator in charge of the newly formed Republic that lasted ten years. Then he was in charge of the protectorate that lasted only till his son took power, then the people invited back charles II who was in exile.
What is the Act of Union of 1707?
The unification of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland formed the United Kingdom.
Identify Peter I.
- Peter the great- self named
- Modernized Russia by bringing westerners to russia, and waging wars against sweden.
- 1. westernize Russia
- 2. Obtain a window to the west
- wanted an ice free port in the Baltic
- Trade and contact with western europe
- 3. Wanted to make his power absolute like louis XIV
Identify Grand Embassy
The tour Peter the Great took where he worked in a shipyard in holland to learn the trade, and learned western industry.