1. When correct response is not the strongest or most habitual
2. When attention is not fully applied to selecting the correct response
What role does the central executive (Supervisory Attentional System - SAS), play in overall goal?
Central executive determines overall goal.
When you don't pay attention the CE fails to check actions against overall goal
(& then well-practiced behaviours might take control of behaviour)
How does frontal lobe damage affect goal-directed behaviour?
It disrupts goal-directed behaviour
(& behaviour becomes more controlled by habit & environment)
Where is the supervisory, attentional system located? (goal-directed behaviour)
In the frontal lobes
What did Tipper & Driver (1988) conclude in their negative priming study? (2)
1. That to respond appropriately we sometimes need to inhibit alternative responses
2. Successful inhibition leads to response being slower the next time it is made
What does the Stroop test demonstrate?
Goal-directed behaviour competing with a habit (reading the word is a habit)
What are the 2 kinds of attention?
What are the features of controlled attention? (2)
endogenous & goal-directed
(eg, visual search)
What are the features of automatic attention?
exogenous & non goal directed
(eg, captured by sight or sound)
How do we represent concepts in semantic memory?
(features that are so typical of the concept that they are virtually required in order to classify an object to categories - defining features)
What is Colins & Wuillian's (1969) hierarchical semantic network?
An account of semantic memory in the form of a semantic network
(model with branches leading down from main word like 'animal' to bird, mammal, fish, etc)
What is the prototype model proposed by Rosch?
Further defines the semantic network by stating that concepts are centred around a prototype which combines the most typical features of all members of that category
Concepts are also hierarchically represented: superordinate (e.g., furniture), basic (e.g., chair), and subordinate (e.g., dining-room chair) categories.
Basic concepts are the ones that people tend to name when shown a picture
What is a propositional network?
Network of propositions such as:
1. Zara gives the book to Arnold. 2. The book belongs to the man 3. The man is old
Beginning with 1 we then branch out 'Zara' (agent), give (relation), Arnold (recipient), book (object). Book then branches to 2 as (subject), etc
Through repeated exposures, one builds up a schema for particular activities (eg, restaurant), what else is this script?
A network of propositions
What did Shepard & Metzler's (1971) empirical study of imagery, reveal about mental rotation?
Operations that we can perform in the mind are similar to operations we perform on the physical objects.
How does Kosslyn's (1975) model of imagery (Imagine a CAT next to an ELEPHANT vs a CAT next to a FLY. Does a cat have claws? Latter easier to respond to because image of cat is bigger), account for generation of novel images?
The model incorporates separate systems for representing images (image files) & propositional information (propositional files).
These can interact with each other to generate a new image (set up in a "spatial medium")
When you just have to recognise the form of a word (i.e., identify the word) is semantic information activated?
Stroop interference shows that semantic information is automatically activated (meaning of a word influences the speed of naming the ink colour, e.g., RED)
Semantic activation is also gauged by looking at semantic priming in the lexical decision task. Recognition of CAT is faster when preceded by DOG
What are the different types of episodic memory captured in the traditional multistory model by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968)? (3)
1. Sensory memory (unprocessed information in its sensory form ready for processing within the STS)
2. Short term store (information here needs to be rehearsed to be remembered)
3. Long term store (rehearsal loop between STS & LTS)
What are the 2 types of rehearsal for episodic memory?
1. Maintenance rehearsal (Reproduce information once, then discard it. i.e.
remembering phone numbers)
2. Elaborative rehearsal (link information to old information already stored in long term store. eg, Mental arithmetic, working memory)
Baddeley (1970s >) states that working memory made up of several subsystems. These are? (4)
1. Articulatory loop: saying to yourself over & over (maintenance rehearsal)
2. Visuo-Spatial Scratchpad: short term version of Kosslyn’s “spatial medium”
3. 2002: Episodic Buffer (binds together information from 1. & 2. – where elaborative processing may occur
4. Central executive: controls system , determines strategies you're going to use in relation to articulatory loop & visuo spatial scratch pad (AKA Slave Systems)
Is long term episodic memory more influenced by semantic factors or by form-based, physical factors (i.e. sound of word)?
Long-term is more influenced by semantic features ('big' mistaken for 'large')
Is short term episodic memory more influenced by semantic factors or by form-based, physical factors (i.e. sound of word)?
Short-term more influenced by physical factors of the word ('big' is mistaken for 'pig')
What is the (distributed) connectionist framework?
Like a combined semantic network & propositional network, where each word on the list has its own episodic trace linked to the Context X node ("CAT occurred in Context X")
What is Infantile amnesia (autobiographical memory)?
No reliable memories prior to the age of 3
What is Reminiscence bump (autobiographical memory)?
People around age 70 asked to generate autobiographical memories - majority of these come from (ages 15-25).
Explained in terms of the novelty of events at that time making them distinctive & being novel, the information in those events is processed more elaborately
What are Flashbulb memories (autobiographical memory)?
Major events that can be vividly remembered bcos they are so momentous.
Exemplified by being able to remember everything you were doing at the time when you heard about a major world event
(but little evidence that accuracy for memory surrounding such events actual lasts any longer than ordinary memories, maybe replay effect)