Volume 3 Chapter 4

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amerelman
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48442
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Volume 3 Chapter 4
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2010-11-09 12:21:32
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Volume 3 Chapter 4
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  1. Hormone
    Chemical substance released by a gland that controls or effects processes in other glands and systems
  2. Endocrine Gland
    Gland that secretes chemical substances directly into the blood
  3. Exocrine Gland
    Gland that secretes chemical substances to nearby tissues through a duct
  4. Homeostasis
    The natural tendency of the body to keep the internal environment and metabolism steady and normal
  5. Metabolism
    Sum of cellular processed that produce energy and molecules needed for growth and repair
  6. Endocrine Glands
    • Hypothalmus
    • Pituitary
    • Thyroid
    • Parathyroid
    • Thymus
    • Pancreas
    • Adrenals
    • Gonads
    • Pineal
  7. Autonomic Nervous System
    Part of nervous system responsible for controlling involuntary body functions
  8. Hypothalmus
    Located in cerebrum of brain. Junction of nervous and endocrine systems. Sends hormones to pituitary and the body.
  9. Pituitary
    Size of a pea. Posterior and anterior.
  10. Posterior Pituitary
    Responds to nerve impulses from the hypothalmus. Produces Antidiretic Hormone (ADH) which causes water retention. Oxytocin which causes uterine contraction and lactation.
  11. Anterior Pitutitary
    • Respondes to hormonal stimulation from hypothalmus.
    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): targets the adrenal cortexes
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH): targets thyroid
    • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH): targets gonads and sex organs
    • Luteneizing hormone (LH): targets gonads
    • Prolactin (PRL): Targets the mammary glands of women
    • Growth hormone (GH): Targets almost all body cells
  12. Thyroid Gland
    • Two lobes located in neck anterior to and just below cartilage of larynx.
    • Thyroxine (T4): stimulates cell metabolism
    • Triiodothyronine (T3): Stimulates cell metabolism
    • Calcitonin: Lowers blood calcium levels
  13. Parathyroid Glands
    • Four very small glands located on posterior surface of thyroid.
    • Parathyroid hormone (PTH): Increased blood calcium levels
  14. Thymus Gland
    • Located in the mediastinum just behind sternum.
    • Thymosin: Promotes maturation of T lymphocytes during childhood
  15. Pancreas
    • Located in upper retroperitoneum behind stomac between duodenum and spleen. Endocrine and exocrine. Has islets of Langerhans. Alpha (glucagon), beta (insulin) and delta (somatostatin) cells each produce different hormones.
    • Glucagon: increases BGL
    • Insulin: decreases BGL
    • Somatostatin: Inhibits release of glucagon and insulin
  16. Glycogenolysis
    Breakdown of glycogen to glucose, primarily in liver cells.
  17. Gluconeogenesis
    Conversion of protein and fat into glucose
  18. Adrenal Glands
    • Located on top of kidneys. Inner portion called adrenal medulla.
    • Epinepherine: sympathetic hormone
    • Norepinehperine: sympathetic hormone
    • Outer portion called adrenal cortex
    • Glucocoticoids (cortisol): also caused increase in BGL
    • Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone): controls salt/fluid balance. Regulates sodium and potassium in kidneys.
    • Androgenic hormones: same function as those secreted by gonads
  19. Gonads
    • Ovaries and testicles. Responsible for sexual maturation and any repoduction.
    • Ovaries: Etrogen and progeterone. Regulated by LH and FSH secreted by Anterior pituitary
    • Testes: Testosterone. Also regulated by LH and FSH.
  20. Pineal Gland
    • Located in the roof of the thalmus.
    • Melatonin: responds to changes in light. Biological clock.
  21. Diabetes Mellitus
    Disorder of inadequate insulin activity, due either to inadequte production of insulin or to decreased responsivenss of body cells to insulin
  22. Anabolism
    Constructive phase of metabolism
  23. Catabolism
    Destructive phase of metabolism.
  24. Ketone Bodies
    Compounds produced during the catabolism of fatty acids.
  25. Ketosis
    Prescence of significant quantities of ketone bodies in blood.
  26. Hypoglycemia
    Deficiency of blood glucose, sometimes called insulin shock
  27. Hyperglycemia
    Excessive BGL
  28. Osmotic Diuresis
    Increased urination and dehydration caused when high levels of glucose cannot be reabsorbed into the blood from kidney tubules.
  29. Diuresis
    Formation and secretion of large amounts of urine
  30. Glycosuria
    Glucose in urine.
  31. Symptomes of Untreated Type 1 diabetes
    • Polydipsia
    • Polyuria
    • Polyphagia
    • Weakness
    • Weight loss
  32. Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)
    Complication of type 1 diabetes due to decreased insulin intake. High BGL, metabolic acidosis and in advanced stages coma.
  33. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketonic (HHNK) Coma
    Complication of Type 2 diabetes due to inadequate insulin activity. Marked by high BGL, marked dehydration, and decreased mental function.
  34. Hypoglycemic Seizure
    Seizure that occurs when brain cells do not receive adequate glucose.
  35. Hyperthyroidism
    Excessive secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in increased metabolic rate.
  36. Thyrotoxicosis
    Condition that reflects prolonged exposure to excess thyroid hormones with resultant changes in body structure and function.
  37. Hypothyroidism
    Inadequte secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in decreased metabolic rate.
  38. Myxedema
    Condition that reflects long term hypothyroidism.
  39. Graves' Disease
    Edocrine disorder characterized by excess thyroid hormones resulting in body changes associated with increased metabolism.
  40. Thyrotoxic Crisis
    Toxic condition characterized by hyperthermia, tachycardia, nervous symptoms and rapid metabolism.
  41. Cushings Syndrome
    Pathological condition resulting from excess adrenocortical hormones. Symptoms may include changed body habitus, hypertension, vulnerability to infection.
  42. Addison's Disease
    Endocrine disorder characterized by adrenocortical insufficiency. Symptoms may include weaknedd, fatigue, weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin.
  43. Addisonian Crisis
    Form of shock associated with adrenocortical insuffiency and characterized by profound hypotension and electrolyte imbalances.

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