Structural support and framework around which body is constructed; provides protection of internal organs
Attached to bones or internal organs; responsible for internal and external movement
MD, bones, bone disease (orth/o = straight; ped/o = child)
MD, joints (rheumat/o = watery flow… referring to collection of fluid im joint spaces)
DO, body able to heal itself with proper nutrition and bone alignment
Physical manipulation of the spinal column to relieve pressure on nerves
Organs composed or osseous tissue and rich supply of blood vessels and nerves
(Osseous tissue contains osteocytes, collagen and calcium salts)
Produce immature bony tissues that replaces cartilage
Nourishes and maintains bone
Reabsorb or digest bone (remodels bone); also called bone phagocytes
Soft, flexible, lacking calcium deposits, precedes osseous bones in embryos.
Cartilaginous tissue (found in nose, ear, ribs)
Replacement of cartilage
Work together to deposit and tear down bone throughout life.
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts
A reservoir for calcium needed for nerve function and muscle function.
Proper formation of bone depends on
Sources of calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D are needed for the formation of ___________. (needed to transportcalcium from intestines into blood stream).
Helps create hardbone from calcium, phosphorus, and Vitamin D
Calcium Phosphate Enzyme
Calcium level is maintained in blood by _____________
Parathyroid gland, which secretes a hormone to release calcium from bone
____ bones in human body:
4 types of Bone
What bone has strong, broad ends to join other bones, large surfaces for muscle attachment
Long bones (Found in thigh, lower leg, upper & lower arms)
Bone found in wrist and ankle, irregular shape
Found covering soft body parts, shoulder blades, pelvic bones, ribs
Bone found near joints to increase muscle efficiency; rounded bones, patella
Shaft of Bone
End of Bone
Part of bone that is cone-like flared portion between end and shaft.
The growth plate where cartilage replaced by bone for bone growth (in length)
Epiphyseal line or plate
Strong, vascular membrane that covers bone, except epiphysis
Ends of bones covered by _______ _______ in the joint: cushions joint and allows it to move smoothly
Layer of hard, dense bone under periosteum; contains haversian systems for blood vessels, nerves, and yellow bone marrow (mostly fat)
Porous, less dense bone with spaces that contain red bone marrow for blood formation
Cancellous (Spongy/trabecular bone)
Bone marrow that is chiefly fat cells
Bone marrow that is rich with blood vessels and immature and mature blood cells in various stages of development; in later life replaced with yellow marrow.
Ribs, pelvic bone, sternum,vertebrae, epiphyses of long bones contain red bone marrow
Enlarged areas of bone that extend out to serve as attachments for
muscles and tendons
Depressions: openings or hollow
regions help join bones or serve as
passageways for nerves and/or vessels
for blood vessels and nerves
cavity within bone
(examples are Xiphoid process, spinous process, tuberosities)
Openings or hollow regions help join bones or serve as passageways for nerves and/or vessels
A shallow cavity
An opening for blood vessels and nerves
A narrow, deep, slit-like opening
A hollow cavity within a bone
Bone that forms forehead and top of eye sockets
Bones that form roof and upper sides of cranium
Parietal bones (2)
Bones on the lower sides and base of cranium
Temporal bones (2)
Bone that forms back and base of skull
Area or passage where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave
The opening of the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes through
A Bat shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull. It joins the frontal, occipital, & ethmoid.
A depression in the sphenoid bone in which the pituitary gland is located. (meaning Turkish saddle)
Thin, delicate bone that supports/forms the nasal cavity and lower eye sockets
Bridge of nose
The two small, thin bones located at the corner of each eye. Contain fossa for tear glands.
Two large bones that compose the massive upper jawbones (maxillae). (Associated with cleft palate)
Lower jaw bone; joins temporal bone
The thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
Process behind ear
Process that anchors the tongue
_________ foramen opening
in mandible for blood vessels and nerves
Air cavities located in facial and cranial bones.
They lighten the skull and warm and moisten the air as it passes into the respiratory system.
Humerus - upper arm bone
Ulna - olecranon (elbow)
Radius - bone on your thumb side
Carpals - 8 wrist bones
Metacarpals - 5 palm bones
Phalanges - finger bones
Extremities (Arm and Hand)
Pelvic girdle - supports trunk of body, articulates w/femur to form hip
Ischium - buttock muscle (bones you sit on)
Pubis - forms pelvic cavity
Bones of the Pelvis
The shin bone, medial malleolus…inside ankle
The lateral malleolus…outside ankle
_______ = 7 bones, hindfoot
=Calcaneus - heel bone
=Talus…an ankle bone
5 bones in the midfoot
Malignant bone tumor involving medullary cavity, common in childhood
Bony growth on surface of bone (bunion)
Malignant tumor arising from bone osteoblast
Softening of bone due to lack of calcium, phosphorus (rickets…bowed legs)
Inflammation secondary to infection
Congenital abnormality of hindfoot involving the talus (clubfoot)
Traumatic breaking of bone
Broken bone protruding thru open wound
Broken bone, but no open skin wound
Caused by diseased bone from tumor or infection
Treatment to restore bone to normal position
Used to immobilize injured bone until healed
Decrease in bone density, weakening of bone, (a thinning and wide separation of trabeculae)
_______ is a coming together or articulation of two or more bones
Immovable: suture joints(skull)
Partially movable: between vertebrae
Freely movable: synovial joints (ball and socket types, e.g. hip or shoulder), (hinge type, e.g., elbow, knee, ankle)
Bones in a synovial joint are surrounded by a ______ _______ composed of fibrous tissue.
Lies under the joint capsule and lines the synovial cavity b/t the bones and it's filled with synovial fluid
_______ _______ is filled with a special lubricating fluid produced by the ________ __________. The fluid contains water and nutrients that nourish as well as lubricate the joints so that friction on the articular cartilage is minimal.
Connective tissue that binds muscles to bones.
Connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilizes the joint.
Smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint.
(bones are covered by it)
Closed sacks of synovial fluid with a synovial membrane located near, but not within a joint. Promotes smooth sliding of one tissue against another. *ex: are elbow, knee, shoulder joints
Bursa (plural: Bursae)
Inflammation of joints (painful)
Inflammation due to excessive uric acid in body; crystals destroy articular cartilage and synovial membrane; treat by reducing red meat, red wine & cheese intake.
Loss of articular cartilage and formation of bone spurs at articular surfaces. (aka degenerative joint disease) treat with aspirin, physical therapy, joint replacement
Autoimmune reaction against joint tissues (against synovial membrane)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Swelling of medial aspect of joint between big toe and first metatarsal bone.
Compression of median nerve as it passes between ligament and bones and tendons of the wrist.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Displacement of bone from a joint
Trauma to joint without rupture, an injury to ligaments, causes pain and swelling. To relieve symptoms apply ice and elevate the joint.
An injury involving the over stretching of muscle
Group of inherited diseases with progressive muscle weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without nervous system involvement
Loss of bone due to osteoporosis leading to increased posterior curvature of thoracic region of the spine (humpback)
Increased anterior curvature of lumbar region of spine (swayback)
Three types of muscles
Muscle under voluntary control—they move all the bones as well as face and eyes, over 600
Control is involuntary—they move internal organs (digestive tract, blood vessels, ducts of glands)
Not consciously controlled and found exclusively in the heart
Point of attachment of the muscle to the stationary bone. (beginning of that muscle)
Point of junction of the muscle to the bone that moves.