Urinary Pathology

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Bilon
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48544
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Urinary Pathology
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2010-11-11 16:07:07
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Urinary Pathology
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Urinary Pathology
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  1. The imaging criteria for pyelography are the same as for an abdominal radiograph, but must include the area from the _____ to indluce the _____.
    diaphragm; inferior bladder
  2. What organ of the body plays an essential role in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood and body fluids and also the electolyte balance?
    Kidney
  3. A bacterial inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis is termed:
    Pyelonephritis
  4. The medical term used to describe dilated calyces and renal pelvis is:
    hydronephrosis
  5. What is the name for the most common abdominal neoplasm of infants and children?
    Wilms' Tumor
  6. What is the name of the most common fusion anomaly of the kidneys?
    Horseshoe Kidney
  7. What is the name for a cystic dilation of the distal ureter near the bladder?
    Ureterocele
  8. Name the first portion of the kidney to become visible after injection of contrast.
    Nephron
  9. What term is used to describe a kidney not in the normal area of the abdomen?
    Ectopic
  10. The medical term for painful urination is:
    dysuria
  11. Functional unit of the kidney:
    nephron
  12. In an average person, the nephron filters about ____ of water out of glomerular blood each day.
    190 L
  13. More than ____ of the water filtered by the nephrons is reabsorbed.
    99%
  14. The formation of urine begins in the:
    glomerulus
  15. ADH is secreted by the ____ and aldosterone is secreted by the ____.
    posterior pituitary gland; adrenal glands
  16. The amount of sodium and chloride reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubules is determined by:
    concentration of these substances in the body.
  17. To maintain a healthy metabolism, the pH must be between:
    7.35 and 7.45
  18. Why is renal failure often associated with severe anemia?
    Because the kidneys produce erythropoitin which stimulates the rate of the production of red blood cells.
  19. Unilateral renal agenesis results from a failure of the:
    embryonic renal bud or renal vascular system to form
  20. In true renal agenesis, the ___ and ____ are missing also.
    ureter and corresponding half of the trigone
  21. A solitary kidney tends to be ____ reflecting _____.
    larger; compensatory hypertrophy
  22. Although supernumerary kidneys function normally, they tend to lead to:
    secondary infections
  23. What makes a horseshoe kidney more prone to infection?
    the large pelvis
  24. Ectopic ureteroceles are found most often in:
    infants and children
  25. Thin, transverse membranes, found almost exclusively in males, that cause bladder outlet obstruction and may lead to severe hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and renal damage:
    posterior urethral valves
  26. Nonsuppurative inflammatory process infolving the tufts of capillaries that filter the blood within a kidney; most commonly occurs several weeks after acute respiratory or middle ear infection:
    glomerulonephritis
  27. Supperative inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis caused by pyogenic bacteria; primarily involves interstitial tissue between tubules:
    Pyelonephritis
  28. Pyelonephritis usually originates in the ____.
    Bladder
  29. Pyelonephritis often occurs in ____ and in patients with _____.
    women and children; obstruction of urinary tract
  30. Signs and sypmtoms of pyelonephritis:
    high fever, chills, back pain that spreads to abdomen, painful urination, pus and bacteria in urine.
  31. Severe form of acute parenchymal and perirenal infection with gas forming bacteria that occurs virtually only in diabetic patients and causess an acute necrosis of the entire kidney:
    emphysematous pyelonephritis
  32. What modality is preferred to localize gas patterns within and around the kidneys?
    CT
  33. How long after primary infection does renal tuberculosis manifest itself?
    5-10 years
  34. A destructive process involving a varying amount of the medullary papillae and the terminal portion of the renal pyramids:
    papillary necrosis
  35. Cystitis is most common in women because:
    the urethra is shorter
  36. Inflammation of the urinary bladder:
    cystitis
  37. Urinary calculi most commonly form in the:
    kidney
  38. When a renal stone completely fills the renal pelvis, this is called:
    staghorn calculus
  39. Stone formation in the bladder is a disorder primarily affecting:
    older men with obstruction or infection of the lower urinary tract
  40. Lithotripsy works well for stones in the:
    kidney or upper ureter
  41. Stones in the lower ureter or pelvis are best relived by:
    cystoscopic retrieval or laser destruction
  42. Major causes of urinary tract obstruction in adults:
    urinary calculi, pelvic tumors, urethral strictures, and enlargement of prostate
  43. What is usually responsible for urinary tract obstrucion in children?
    congenital malformations
  44. Most common unifocal masses of the kidney:
    simple renal cysts
  45. What is the modality of choice for distinguishing fluid-filled cysts from solid mass lesions?
    Ultrasound
  46. An inherited disorder in which multiple cysts of varying size cause lobulated enlargement of the kidneys and progressive renal impairment:
    polycystic renal disease
  47. Another name for renal cell carcinoma:
    hypernephroma
  48. Most common renal neoplasm:
    hypernephroma
  49. Hypernephroma occurs predominantly in patients who are:
    over 40 years old with painless hematuria
  50. Modality considered the most accurate method for detecting local and regional spread of hypernephroma:
    CT
  51. Are radiation or chemotherapy effective in renal cell carcinoma?
    No, nephrectomy is the most common treatment
  52. Most common abdominal neoplasm of infancy and childhood:
    wilms' tumor
  53. Another name for Wilms' Tumor:
    Nephroblastoma
  54. What treatments result in an 85% cure rate in patients with Wilm's Tumor?
    Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy
  55. Bladder carcinoma most commonly originates in the _____ and is called _____.
    epithelium; urothelial carcinoma
  56. Bladder carcinoma is usually seen in:
    men more than 50 years of age
  57. Fourth most common cancer in men:
    bladder carcinoma
  58. Urography can detect only 60% of bladder carcinomas because most are ___ when first symptomatic and are located on the ____, where they can be difficult to visualize.
    small; trigone
  59. Renal vein thrombosis occurs most frequently in:
    children who are severely dehydrated
  60. A rapid deterioration in kidney function that is sufficient to result in the accumulation of nitrogen-containing wastes in the blood and the characterisitic odor of amonia on the breath:
    Acute renal failure
  61. Modality of choice in the evaluation of ARF:
    ultrasound
  62. A condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the latter
    Diabetes Insipidus
  63. A group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
    Diabetes Mellitus
  64. stable concentration in bodily fluids
    Acid-Base Balance
  65. cup-shaped end of renal tubule
    Bowman’s Capsule
  66. funnels urine into the papillary ducts in the renal pelvis
    Collecting Tubules
  67. disk, cake, lump, or doughnut kidney; kidneys fused together
    Complete Fusion
  68. ectopic kidney located on the same side as the normal kidney
    Crossed Ectopic
  69. more than one renal pelvis or ureter
    Duplication
  70. distention of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney
    Hydronephrosis
  71. dilatation of the ureter
    Hydroureter
  72. most common renal cell carcinoma
    Hypernephroma
  73. underdeveloped kidney
    Hypoplastic Kidney
  74. calcium deposists within the substance of the kidney
    Nephrocalcinosis
  75. second part of the nephron, first part of renal tubule
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  76. renal calculi filling the entire renal pelvis of the kidney
    Staghorn Calculus
  77. an extra kidney
    Supermumerary Kidney
  78. absence of a kidney
    Unilateral Renal Agenesis

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