Card Set Information
The imaging criteria for pyelography are the same as for an abdominal radiograph, but must include the area from the _____ to indluce the _____.
diaphragm; inferior bladder
What organ of the body plays an essential role in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood and body fluids and also the electolyte balance?
A bacterial inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis is termed:
The medical term used to describe dilated calyces and renal pelvis is:
What is the name for the most common abdominal neoplasm of infants and children?
What is the name of the most common fusion anomaly of the kidneys?
What is the name for a cystic dilation of the distal ureter near the bladder?
Name the first portion of the kidney to become visible after injection of contrast.
What term is used to describe a kidney not in the normal area of the abdomen?
The medical term for painful urination is:
Functional unit of the kidney:
In an average person, the nephron filters about ____ of water out of glomerular blood each day.
More than ____ of the water filtered by the nephrons is reabsorbed.
The formation of urine begins in the:
ADH is secreted by the ____ and aldosterone is secreted by the ____.
posterior pituitary gland; adrenal glands
The amount of sodium and chloride reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubules is determined by:
concentration of these substances in the body.
To maintain a healthy metabolism, the pH must be between:
7.35 and 7.45
Why is renal failure often associated with severe anemia?
Because the kidneys produce erythropoitin which stimulates the rate of the production of red blood cells.
Unilateral renal agenesis results from a failure of the:
embryonic renal bud or renal vascular system to form
In true renal agenesis, the ___ and ____ are missing also.
ureter and corresponding half of the trigone
A solitary kidney tends to be ____ reflecting _____.
larger; compensatory hypertrophy
Although supernumerary kidneys function normally, they tend to lead to:
What makes a horseshoe kidney more prone to infection?
the large pelvis
Ectopic ureteroceles are found most often in:
infants and children
Thin, transverse membranes, found almost exclusively in males, that cause bladder outlet obstruction and may lead to severe hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and renal damage:
posterior urethral valves
Nonsuppurative inflammatory process infolving the tufts of capillaries that filter the blood within a kidney; most commonly occurs several weeks after acute respiratory or middle ear infection:
Supperative inflammation of the kidney and renal pelvis caused by pyogenic bacteria; primarily involves interstitial tissue between tubules:
Pyelonephritis usually originates in the ____.
Pyelonephritis often occurs in ____ and in patients with _____.
women and children; obstruction of urinary tract
Signs and sypmtoms of pyelonephritis:
high fever, chills, back pain that spreads to abdomen, painful urination, pus and bacteria in urine.
Severe form of acute parenchymal and perirenal infection with gas forming bacteria that occurs virtually only in diabetic patients and causess an acute necrosis of the entire kidney:
What modality is preferred to localize gas patterns within and around the kidneys?
How long after primary infection does renal tuberculosis manifest itself?
A destructive process involving a varying amount of the medullary papillae and the terminal portion of the renal pyramids:
Cystitis is most common in women because:
the urethra is shorter
Inflammation of the urinary bladder:
Urinary calculi most commonly form in the:
When a renal stone completely fills the renal pelvis, this is called:
Stone formation in the bladder is a disorder primarily affecting:
older men with obstruction or infection of the lower urinary tract
Lithotripsy works well for stones in the:
kidney or upper ureter
Stones in the lower ureter or pelvis are best relived by:
cystoscopic retrieval or laser destruction
Major causes of urinary tract obstruction in adults:
urinary calculi, pelvic tumors, urethral strictures, and enlargement of prostate
What is usually responsible for urinary tract obstrucion in children?
Most common unifocal masses of the kidney:
simple renal cysts
What is the modality of choice for distinguishing fluid-filled cysts from solid mass lesions?
An inherited disorder in which multiple cysts of varying size cause lobulated enlargement of the kidneys and progressive renal impairment:
polycystic renal disease
Another name for renal cell carcinoma:
Most common renal neoplasm:
Hypernephroma occurs predominantly in patients who are:
over 40 years old with painless hematuria
Modality considered the most accurate method for detecting local and regional spread of hypernephroma:
Are radiation or chemotherapy effective in renal cell carcinoma?
No, nephrectomy is the most common treatment
Most common abdominal neoplasm of infancy and childhood:
Another name for Wilms' Tumor:
What treatments result in an 85% cure rate in patients with Wilm's Tumor?
Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy
Bladder carcinoma most commonly originates in the _____ and is called _____.
epithelium; urothelial carcinoma
Bladder carcinoma is usually seen in:
men more than 50 years of age
Fourth most common cancer in men:
Urography can detect only 60% of bladder carcinomas because most are ___ when first symptomatic and are located on the ____, where they can be difficult to visualize.
Renal vein thrombosis occurs most frequently in:
children who are severely dehydrated
A rapid deterioration in kidney function that is sufficient to result in the accumulation of nitrogen-containing wastes in the blood and the characterisitic odor of amonia on the breath:
Acute renal failure
Modality of choice in the evaluation of ARF:
A condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the latter
A group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
stable concentration in bodily fluids
cup-shaped end of renal tubule
funnels urine into the papillary ducts in the renal pelvis
disk, cake, lump, or doughnut kidney; kidneys fused together
ectopic kidney located on the same side as the normal kidney
more than one renal pelvis or ureter
distention of the pelvis and calyces of the kidney
dilatation of the ureter
most common renal cell carcinoma
calcium deposists within the substance of the kidney
second part of the nephron, first part of renal tubule
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
renal calculi filling the entire renal pelvis of the kidney
an extra kidney
absence of a kidney
Unilateral Renal Agenesis