Bio Psych

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Bio Psych
2010-11-09 18:02:53
bio psych

Study Guide
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  1. The relationship between the physical stimulus and the sensory experience is called
  2. _______ involves converting physical energy into neural energy.
  3. The level at which a stimulus is detected at least 50% of the time is the ___ ___
    absolute threshold
  4. being able to detect the difference between two different frequencies of sound would be an example of a ____ ____.
    difference threshold
  5. when a stimulus is below threshold, it is said to be _____
  6. When the receptors stop responding to a constant stimulus ____ ____ has occurred.
    sensory adaptation
  7. color or ____ is determined by the wave lengths of the light waves.
  8. The psychological sensation of ______ is determined by the amplitude or intensity of the light waves.
  9. The purity of a light determines the visual acuity quality called _____.
  10. light enters through the transparent _____ whose principle function is to initiate the focusing process.
  11. The hole in the eye is the _____ which _____ when in bright light and _____ when in dim light.
    pupil. constricts. dialates.
  12. a number of factors can affect changes in the pupil
  13. The sympathetic nervous system _____ the pupils and the parasympathetic _____ the pupils.
    dialates. constricts.
  14. Belladonna or _____ dialates the pupils.
  15. The spherical ____ is flexible, changing in curvature when a person looks at close or faraway objects.
  16. the process that the lens goes through in order to focus on objects at varying distances is called _____.
  17. the person with _____ or farsightedness can see distant objects clearly, but close objects are blurred.
  18. the eyeball is too ____ and corrective lenses for these people have a ____ shape. (farsightedness)
    short. convex.
  19. a person with ____ or nearsightedness cannot see distant objects clearly.
  20. the eyeball is too ____ and the condition is corrected by lenses which are _____. (nearsightedness)
    long. concaved.
  21. the arrangement of the cellular layers in the retina is such that before light can strike the photoreceptors ____ and ____, it must filter through the neural layers, the _____ cell layer and the ______ cell layer.
    rods. cones. bipolar. ganglion.
  22. the photo or light receptors are the ____ and the ____.
    rods. cones.
  23. The ____ are located primarily in the peripheral or outer areas of the retina and the ____ are concentrated in the interior or central vision.
    rods. cones.
  24. the _____ is in the middle of the retina and is all cones.
  25. nighttime vision called _____ vision, is mediated by the _____.
    scotopic. rods.
  26. it is _____ or colorless.
  27. daytime or _____ vision is mediated by the _____.
    photopic. cones.
  28. it is _____ allowing one to see color.
  29. rods are better at detecting very weak or dim stimuli, but cones allow for better visual _____, the ability to distinguish details.
  30. a _____ _____ is that area of the retina from which a single ganglion cell receives input.
    receptive field.
  31. the ganglion cells connected to rods have a _____ receptive field and more convergence.
  32. the ganglion cells connected to cones have a _____ receptive field and less convergence.
  33. rods contain the photopigment _____ and cones contain the photopigments called _____.
    rhodopsin. iodopsin.
  34. the three types of _____ in the cones respond differently to different wavelengths of light, coding for color.
  35. the axons of the ganglion cells make up the _____ _____.
    optic nerve
  36. the area where the _____ _____ leaves the retina is called the blind spot or the _____ _____.
    optic disk.
  37. the area of the brain where the fibers cross over is called the _____ _____.
    optic chiasm.
  38. other brain areas involved in the visual pathway are the _____ colliculi in the midbrain and the lateral geniculate nuclei in the forebrain structure, the ______.
    superior. thalamus.
  39. the ______ ______ theory holds that the retina contains three different groups of cones and that each group when stimulated alone with produce a different color sensation, whether red, green, or blue.
    Young Helmholtz.
  40. The _____ ______ theory is based on four primary colors. Neurons would respond with increased firing when one color was presented and decreased their firing to the presentation of another color.
    Herings opponent process
  41. Oliver sacks describes a patient who patted parking meters on the head, thinking they were children. This patient could not visually identify an object, a type of _____.
  42. the stimulus for audition is _____ _____.
    sound waves.
  43. variations in frequency produce the sensation of _____; variations in amplitude produce the sensation of _____.
    pitch. volume.
  44. _____ allows a person to differentiate between the sounds of a violin and a piano.
  45. the fleshy outer part of the ear is called the _____ or _____, and is part of the external ear.
    pinna. auricle.
  46. At the end of the auditory canal is the ______ ______, more commonly known as the eardrum.
    tympanic membrane.
  47. the _____ ______ is a cavity containing three small bones, the _____. It serves to amplify the soundwaves.
    middle ear. ossicles.
  48. The hammer or _____ attaches to the anvil or incus, which in turn attaches to the stirrup or _____.
    maleus. stapes.
  49. otosclerosis usually affects the stirrup and can cause a type of _____ deafness. treatment is to perform a ______.
    conduction. stepedectomy.
  50. damage to the outer or middle ear results in _____ deafness.
  51. damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve causes ______ deafness and has a worse prognosis.
  52. the function of the _____ tube is to equalize middle ear and atmospheric pressure.
  53. the outer ear _____ sound waves, the middle ear _____ the sound waves, and the inner ear converts the sound waves to neural energy, a process referred to as _____.
    collects. amplifies. transduction.
  54. within the inner ear is a snail-shaped organ, the _____.
  55. inside of this organ are the receptor cells called hair cells. the organ of _____ consists of the hair cells.
  56. The organ of corti is supported by the _____ membrane.
  57. fluid movement in the cochlea, causes the _____ membrane to move relative to the tectorial membrane, thus bending the hair cells between them and giving rise to nerve impulses.
  58. smell or _____ and taste or _____ are known as the chemical senses.
    olfaction. gustation.
  59. the skin sensations are referred to as the _____ sense.
  60. the _____ sense provides information concerning body position and also the sense of equilibrium.
  61. _____ is the sense which gives a person awareness of limb position.
  62. _____ are endogenous opiates.
  63. the _____ assert that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
  64. the principle of _____ states that we tend to fill in missing parts of a figure.
  65. The tendency to perceive things as unchanging or constant, even though the image on the retina is changing is _____ _____.
    perceptual constancy.
  66. without _____ _____ you would think you dog was getting smaller and smaller as he walked away from you.
    size constancy.
  67. in the _____ _____ perceived size is distorted by our assumption that the room is rectangular.
    Ames room.
  68. the perceptual rule that makes important things stand out and the rest be perceived as background is called _____ _____.
    figure ground.
  69. a cyclops could land a plane but would have to rely on using only _____ cues for depth.
  70. people with vision in both eyes use both _____ and _____ cues when perceiving depth.
    monocular. binocular.
  71. if one object partially overlaps another object, the partially overlapping object will appear closer because of the depth cues of _____.
  72. the two eyes working together to focus on an object provides the depth cue _____
  73. in a child with _____ sometimes known as lazy eye, the developing brain 'turns off' the image from the one eye, resulting in a lack of proper connections to the brain occurring.
  74. because the eyes are separated by several inches, each eye receives a slight different image. this is called _____ _____ and is a binocular cue to depth.
    retinal desperity
  75. shading, relative size, height in the picture and amount of detail are all _____ cues