American Government Test 3

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bheight1
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48560
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American Government Test 3
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2010-11-09 19:51:42
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American Government
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American Government
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  1. Describe the members in the House of Representatives.
    • 435 members set in law
    • elected every 2 years
    • all revenue bills must start here
  2. Describe the Senate chamber.
    • 100 members set in Constitution
    • elected to 6-year terms
  3. Reallocation of seats in the House of Representatives on a basis of changes in the state's population since the last census
    Reapportionment
  4. What are five reasons that incumbents often win reelections?
    • Stronger name recognition
    • Easier access to media coverage
    • Franking
    • Campaign contributions
    • Casework
  5. the now illegal practice of drawing legislative district boundaries to benefit an incumbent, a political party, or another group
    gerrymandering
  6. A legislative district composed of a majority of a given minority community for the intent that it will make it more likely that a minority will be elected to Congress
    Majority-minority district
  7. What are the enumerated judicial powers of Congress?
    • Establishing the federal court system
    • Punishing counterfeiters
    • Punishing illegal acts on the high seas
  8. What are the economic enumerated powers of Congress?
    • Imposing taxes
    • Establish import tariffs
    • Borrowing money
    • Regulating interstate commerce
    • Coining and printing money and determining the value of currency
  9. What are the enumerated national security powers of Congress?
    • Declaring war
    • Raising and regulating national armed forces
    • Calling up and regulating state national guard
    • Supressing insurrections
    • Repeling invasions
  10. What are the enumerated regulatory powers of Congress?
    • Establishing standards of weights and measures
    • Regulating copyrights and patents
  11. What are the enumerated administrative powers of Congress?
    • Establishing procedures for naturalizing citizens
    • Establishing post offices
    • Governing the District of Columbia
  12. A model of representation in which a member of Congress should articulate and vote for the position that best represents the views of the constituents (Statesman)
    Trustee Model
  13. A model of representation in which legislators, as representatives of their constituents, should vote in keeping with the constituents' views, even if those views contradict his or her own (politician)
    Instructed Delegate Model
  14. What are the limits to being in Congress?
    • you cannot have outside jobs
    • you must disclose your worth
    • you must have had previously served a government office
  15. Legislators' appropriations of funds for special projects located in their congressional district
    Pork Barrel
  16. Personal work by a legislator on behalf of a constituent or group of constituents, typically aimed at geting the government to do something the constituent wants done
    casework
  17. Where the legislative branch "checks" the executive branch to ensure that the laws Congress passed are being administered in the right way
    oversight
  18. determination by Congress of which public issues the government should consider for legislation
    Agenda-Setting
  19. A pernament committee with a defined legislative jurisidiction (ex. Homeland Security)
    Standing Committee
  20. A committee that decides the length of debate and the scope of amendments that will be allowed on a bill
    rules committee
  21. The fourth step in passing a bill where this group reconciles two versions of a bill passed in both the House and the Senate
    Conference Committee
  22. the primary committee considering a bill
    lead committee
  23. the system in which the member with the longest continuous tenure on a standing committee is given preference when the committee chooses its chair
    seniority system
  24. congressional committees created to consider specific policy issues or adress a specific concern (temporary)
    select committee
  25. A bicameral committee composed of both chambers of Congress to study a piece of legislation
    joint committee
  26. A subordinate committee in Congress that typically handles specific areas of a standing committee's jurisidiction
    subcommittee
  27. What four actions do a subcommittee perform when they favor a measure?
    • Agency Review
    • Hearings
    • Markup
    • Report
  28. The most important committee in the House, which decides the length of debate and the scope of amendments that will be allowed on a bill
    Rules Committee
  29. What are the three implied powers of the presidency?
    • Chief Legislator
    • Chief Executive
    • Party Leader
    • Chief Economist
    • Chief Diplomat
    • Commander-in-Chief
    • Chief of State
  30. a written message that the president issues upon signing a bill into law which can contradict what the bill says
    signing statement
  31. an international agreement between the United States and other nations, not subject to Senate approval and only in effect during the administration of the president who negotiates the agreement
    executive agreement
  32. the president's selection of a running mate who brings diversity of ideology, geographic religion, age, gender, and race or ethnicity
    balanced ticket
  33. exclusive power shall be vested in a president that he will "take care" thaat the laws will be faithfully executed
    Take Care Clause
  34. The right of the president to withold information from Congress or the courts, or the right to refuse to appear before legislative and judicial bodies
    Executive Privilege
  35. the power to speak out and have their news listened to
    Bully Pulpit
  36. any organization with a hierarchal structure
    bureaucracy
  37. a bureaucratic service where people work for the public
    public service
  38. an executive branch untreated by Congress and the president that is responsible for a narrowly defined function over a particular department
    Independent Administrative Agency
  39. an executive branch commission responsible for developing standards of behavior within specific industries and business (ex. Consumer Product Regulation, FCC)
    Independent Regulatory Commission
  40. a government entity that is allowed to make its own money (ex. Post Office)
    Government Corporation
  41. somewhat independent, but has duties that cross the lines (ex. NASA, FDA)
    Hybrids
  42. a system of hiring and promotion based on an individual's competence
    merit
  43. bureaucrats hired through the merit-based personnel program
    civil servants
  44. this ivil servant can go to their supervisor and report mismanagement, fraud, corruption, etc
    whistle blower
  45. putting an ending date for a law (ex. Voting Rights Act)
    Sunset Clause
  46. a law that gives bureaucracies and other government entities the legal authority to spend money
    appropriation law
  47. legislation that opens up government functions and documents to the public
    sunshine laws
  48. the highest court with limited jurisidiction whose decisions may not be appealed; it serves as the last resort in the U.S. Judiciary
    U.S. Supreme Court
  49. the middle level in the federal court structure, also called the court of appeals
    circuit courts
  50. the court with original jurisidiction where facts are tried
    trial courts
  51. when the Supreme Court decides what is legal or not; established by John Marshall
    Judicial Review
  52. the process by which cases are brought and decided in the American legal system
    litigation
  53. a conflict between private individuals in which the plantiff alleges that some action or inaction by the defendant has resulted in harm to him or her
    civil law case
  54. a case brought by the government or a prosecutor against a defendant, alleging that he or she has engaged in conduct resulting in injury to another person, and that his injury is so signifigant, it harms not only the individual but also the larger society
    criminal law case
  55. a wrongful act involving a personal injury or harm to one's property or reputation
    tort
  56. the party seeking to have a lower court's decision reviewed by an appellate court; also called an appellant
    petitioner
  57. the party opposing the hearing of a case by an appellate court; also called an appellee
    respondent
  58. law made by judges who decide cases and articulate legal principles in their opinions; based on the British system
    common law
  59. laws created by legislators to regulate the behavior of individuals and organizations
    code law
  60. Describe felonies.
    • any crime punishable for over a year
    • heard in a Superior Court
    • any case over $250
  61. Describe misdemeanors.
    • any crime less than a year
    • heard in a state court
    • any crime under $250
  62. Where four justices that review every appeal handed to them agrees to hear a case if four or more agree to it
    Rule of Four
  63. What is the criteria to the Rule of Four?
    • it is new law in an area that hasn't been dealt with before
    • the justices feel that this case is in an area of the law that is unclear and they need more definition
  64. an order to a lower court to produce a certified record of a case to help judges decide the case before them
    writ of certiorari
  65. a document submitted by parties interested in a certain case or issue in an attempt to provide the court with information that may be used to decide the case (a.k.a friend of the court)
    amicus curiae brief
  66. A judicial opinion agreeing with how a majority decides but disagreeing with at least some of the legal interpretations or conclusion s reached by majority
    concurring opinion
  67. A judicial opinion disagreeing both with the majority's disposition of a case and with their legal interpretations and conclusions
    dissenting opinion

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