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Incorrectly rejecting null hypothesis
Type I error

Accepting the null hypothesis incorrectly
Type II error

Hypothesis that no difference exists between groups
Null hypothesis

Spread of data around a mean
Variance

Prospective study with random assignment; avoids treatment biases
Randomized controlled trial

Prospective study where patient and doctor are not told what treatment will be; avoids observational biases
Double blind controlled trial

Prospective study comparing disease rates between exposed and unexposed groups
Cohort study

Retrospective study in which those who have the disease are compared with a similar population who do not have the disease
Casecontrol study

Combining data from different studies
Metaanalysis

Comparison of means from two groups of quantitative data
Student�s T test

Comparison of means of before and after studies
Paired T test

Comparison of means for more than 2 groups
ANOVA

Comparison of two groups with categorical variables
Chisquared test

Incidence in exposed/incidence in unexposed
Relative risk

Probability of making the correct conclusion
Power

Number of people with disease in a population
Prevalence

Number of new cases diagnosed over a certain time frame in a population
Incidence

Ability to detect disease, or true positives/(true positives + false negatives)
Sensitivity

Ability to state no disease is present, or true negatives/(true negatives + false negatives)
Specificity

Likelihood that with a positive result, the patient actually has the disease
PPV

Likelihood that with a negative result the patient does not have the disease
NPV

True positives + true negatives/true positives + true negatives + false positives + false negatives
Accuracy

