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2010-11-13 12:03:19
Chapter Patton April

Chapter 11
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  1. is responsible for moving the framework of the body
    Muscular System
  2. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    ability to be stimulated
    Excitability (irritability)
  3. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    ability to contract, or shorten, and produce body movement
  4. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    ability to extend, or stretch, thereby allowing muscles to return to their resting length
  5. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    Plasma membrane of muscle fibers
  6. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    network of tubules and sacs found within muscle fibers
    T tubules
  7. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    network of tubules and sacs in muscle cells, similiar to endoplasmic reticulum of other cells
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
  8. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    numerous fine fibers packed close together in sarcoplasm
  9. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    contractile unit of muscle cells; length of a myofibril between two Z disks
  10. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    very rapid, providing energy during first minutes of maximal exercise, may occur when low levels of O2 is available, results in formation of lactic acid which requires oxygen to convert back to glucose
    Anaerobic Respiration
  11. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    occurs when adequate o2 is available from blood, slower than anaerobic respiration, thus supply energy for the long term rather than the short term
    Aerobic Respiration
  12. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    muscle fibers with high levels of myoglobin
    Red Fibers
  13. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    muscle fibers with little myoglobin
    White Fibers
  14. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    motor neurons connect to the sarcolemma at the motor endplate
    Neuromuscular Junction
  15. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    the neurotransmitter released into the synaptic cleft that diffuses across the gap, stimulates the receptors, and initiates an impulse in the sarcolemma
  16. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    globular protein that forms two fibrous strands twisted around each other to form the bulk of the think filament
  17. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    protein that blocks the active sites on the actin molecules
  18. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    protein that holds tropomyosin molecules in place
  19. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    makes up almost all the thick filament, the "heads" are cheically attracted to actin molecules, "heads" are know as cross bridges when attached to actin
  20. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    attaches to both Z disks (Z lines) of a sarcomere and extend part way toward the center
    Thin Filaments
  21. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    do not attach to the Z disks
    Thick myosin filaments
  22. (Funcion of Skeletal Muscle Tissue)

    contraction produces waste heat that can be used to help maintain the set point body temperature
    Skeletal Muscle
  23. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    motor neuron plus the muscle fibers to which it attaches
    Motor Unit
  24. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    method of graphing the changing tension of a muscle as it contracts
  25. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    A quick jerk of a muscle that is produced as a result of a single, brief threshold stimulus(generally occurs only in experimental situations)
    Twitch Contractions
  26. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    Nerve impulse travels to the sarcoplasmic reticulum to trigger release of Ca++
    Latent Phase
  27. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    Ca++ binds to troponin and sliding of filaments occurs
    Contraction Phase
  28. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    sliding of filaments cease
    Relaxation Phase
  29. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    the staircase phenomenon, gradual, steplike increase in the strength of contraction that is seen in a series of twitch contractions that occur 1 second apart,
  30. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    smooth, sustained contractions
  31. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    multiple twitch waves are added together to sustain muscle tension for a longer time
    Multiple Wave Summation
  32. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    very short periods of relaxation occur between peaks of tension
    Incomplete Tetanus
  33. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    the stimulation is such that twithc waves fuse into a single, sustained peak
    Complete Tetanus
  34. (Function of Skeletal Muscle Organs)

    continual, partial contraction of a muscle
    Tonic Contraction
  35. (Graded Strength Principle)

    Contraction in which the tone or tension within a muscle remain the same as the lenght of the muscle changes
    Isotonic Contraction
  36. (Graded Strength Principle)

    muscle shortens as it contracts
  37. (Graded Strength Principle)

    muscle lengthens while contracting
  38. (Graded Strength Principle)

    the body tries to maintain constancy of muscle lenght in response to increased load
    Stretch Reflexes
  39. (Graded Strength Principle)

    means "same tension"
  40. (Graded Strength Principle)

    Contraction in which muscle lenght remains the same while muscle tension increase
    Isometric Contraction
  41. (Graded Strength Principle)

    literally means "same length"
  42. (Function of Cardiac and Smooth Muscle Tissue)

    continuous, electrically coupled mass
  43. (Mechanisms of Disease)
    generally disrupt the normal movement of the body
    Myopathies or muscle disorders
  44. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    Injury to skeletal muscle caused by overexertion or trauma can result in a
    Muscle Strain
  45. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    Muscle strains are characterized y muscle pain or
  46. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    An injury that occurs in the area of a joint and a ligament is damaged, the injury may be called a
  47. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    Any muscle inflammation, includig that cuased by a muscle strain, is termed
  48. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    If tendon inflammation occurs with myositis, as in a "charley horse" the condition is termed
  49. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    Minor trauma to the body, espceially a limb, may cause a muscle bruise or
  50. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    a bacterial infection. is an abnormal condition casued by an infection of the central nervous system with the bacterium Clostridium tetani
  51. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    This bacterium released a toxin called tetanospasmin that triggers overactivity of the nervous system, often involving painful spasms of the muscles throughout the body
    Clostridium tetani
  52. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    a viral infection of the nerves that control skeletal muscle movement
  53. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    is not a single disorder but a group of genetic diseases characterized by atropy (wasting) of skeletal muscle tissues
    Muscular Dystrophy
  54. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    form of muscular dystrophy. this disease is also called pseudohypertrophy (meaning "false muscle growth") because the atrophy of muscle is masked by excessive replacement of muscle by fat and fibrous tissue
    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)
  55. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    a chronic disease characterized by muscle weakness, especially in the face and throat. Is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks muscle cells at the neuromuscluar junction
    Myasthenia Gravis
  56. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    when severe muscle weakness causes immobility in all four limbs
    Myasthenic Crisis
  57. (Mechanisms of Disease)

    Weakness of abdominal muscles can lead to protrusion of an abdominal organ (commonly the small intestine or stomach) through an opening in the abdominla wall.