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Who were Knights of the Empire?
- The figures of power in Southern Germany and the Rhineland
- Acknowledged no other lordship other than emperor
What were the Germanic Liberties?
- Supported by France
- Sense of independence and states rights
- Somewhat midevil, yet modern
What is Szlachta?
- The Polish aristocracy
- 8% of population
What was the Perpetual Diet?
- Central dier that was inefficient and the center of political action
- Perpetual- forever diet- government
- Last diet in 1663, though never formally dissolved
- Name given as it was ongoing
- Proved it was a meaningless government
- Lasted until 1806
What was the Liberum Veto?
- Free vote in Poland/HRE
- If one person disagrees then no action can be taken- called "exploding the Diet"
What was the Koran?
- The muslim law/religious law
- Holy Book
What was the Caliph?
- The commander of the faithful
- Religious leader
Who was the Sulton?
- The muslim political leader
- Often the same as the Caliph
What were Extraterritorial privleges?
- Other European states accepted and allowed areas to have their rights
- Diplomatic immunity
- Don't have to follow the law of their country, just the law of that territory
What is the Turk Bell?
- Acted as an alarm system all throughout Germany
- Signaled Turkish invasion
Who is the Guelph Family?
- Royal family of Hanover
- Controlled Brandenburg
- Later became the royal family of England as the Settlement Act (no catholics) forced the succession to go to the cousins
- First of the family to rule England- George I (good for Parliament because he doesn't know English)
Who are the Honenzollerns?
- Ruled in Hanover
- Schemed to create an electorae
- Extorted from emperor in 1692
- Called electors and eventual rulers of Brandenburg which becomes Prussia
What is the Dutchy of Prussia?
- A part of Prussia
- Austria and Prussia
- Group of Germans in Poland
What is Neofeudalism?
What three empires controlled most of Europe in the mid-seventeenth century?
Germany, England, France
What were the constrasts between Eastern and Western Europe in relation to the peasants?
- Western- became more involved
- Eastern- became less involved
What are ways in which the empires of Eastern Europe resembled eachother in "political softness"?
- No central power
- Diverse ethnics
- Miliatary power
What events led to the ruin of the HRE?
- Protestant Reformation
- 30 Years War
What is strange about the election of the emperor in the HRE?
- Protestant electors still vote for the catholic Hapsburgs
- Don't want a new ruler to make changes or gain too much power
Why could power not be accumulated by the ruler in the HRE and the Republic of Poland?
- The continued to have to get elected, not passed down hereditarily
- Needed to give up power and promise rewards for a vote
- Weakened the Empire
What were the two German States that led in power and influence after 1700?
Austria and Prussia
What two kingdoms were united to form the Republic of Poland?
Poland and Lithuania
Why were Polish cities able to have a large Jewish population that were able to live a Orthodox Jewish lifestyle?
- Jews were not persecuted
- Allowed open religious celebration
- Can live in obscurity
What "fief" of the Republic of Poland became independent?
- East Prussia
- Independent of the Polish crown
What became the chief Slavic power in Eastern Europe?
- As a result of the Polish demise
Why was the Ottoman Empire successful?
- More organized in military
- Efficient military
How was the Ottoman Empire different than others in Europe?
- Muslim- led by the Koran
- Had a standing army
- Theocratic- religion and politics ruled as one
Why did not many Christians convert to Muslim during Turkish rule in Eastern Europe?
The mulisms didn't force their faith if the Christians proved to be beneficial and accept their rule
What German state repelled Turkish advances in Eastern Europe in the late seventeenth century?
- Austria given credit for fighting
- Fought in Hungary
What are hereditary provinces?
- The oldest dominions of Austria
- Upper and lower Austria with the adjoining Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola
- Directly inherited by the Hapsburgs
Who was Pope Innocent XI?
- The pope during 1683 when the Turks invaded Vienna
- Funded the Christian side of the was (Poles, Austrian, Germans)
Who was Duke Charles of Lorraine?
- A Hapsburg general who who commanded the Christian troops
- Hoped to protect his inheritance from being annexed by France
- Eventually King of Austria and HRE
- Charles VI
Who was John Sobieski?
- The king of Poland, who aided Vienna
- Showed last great military effort of the Republic of Vienna
Who is the Prince of Savoy?
- French by origin, founded modern Austria
- Military administrator and commander, reforming the supply, equipment, training, and commander of the Hapsburg forces
What was the Battle of Zenta?
- Battle between Louis XIV and Prince of Savoy in 1697
- Won by Savoy, driving the Turks out of Hungary
What was the Peace of Karlowitz?
- Ended the Battle of Zenta in 1699
- Turks yielded most of Hungary, Transylvania, and Croatia to the Hapsburg house
What was the Treaty of Rastadt?
Ended the Wars of the Spanish Succession, giving Savoy the old Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Sicily, and Naples
What is the Peace of Belgrade?
- When a frontier was drawn on which Austria remained unchanged and the Turks held Romania and almost the entire Balkan penninsula (not Catholic Croatia)
What was the Trieste?
- A Hapsburg seaport to allow trade on the Mediterranean
- Gained in the Treaty of Rastadt
What was the Magyar Aristocracy?
- Seen as the king of Bohemia and the apostolic king of Hungary
- Still states' rights
- Dominant ethnic group
Who was Charles VI?
- King-archduke of Burgundy
- Devised a way to guarentee undivided succession, leading to the Pragmatic Sanction
- King of Austria
- Only one child- daughter
What was the Pragmatic Sanction?
- Forced every diet in the empire and archdukes of Hapsburg family to regard the Hapsburg territories as indivisible and to recognize one specific line of heirs
Who was Maria Theresa?
- Charles VI's only daughter
- Not found "fit" to rule the throne
- After father's death, war breaks out- War of the Austrian Succession
What are the three major parts of the house of Austria's direct possessions (land)?
- Austria (hereditary provinces)- Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, and Caniola
- Bohemia- Bohemia, Moravia, Siesia (St. Wenceslas)
- Hungary- Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia (St. Stephen)
- Turks attack Hungary keeping it in the Austrian Empire
When did the Hapsburgs "root out" Protestantism and feudal rebelliousness from Austria?
During the 30 Years War in the 17th century
What the Hapsburg empire nonnational or national?
Nonnational- empire spread across multiple ethnicities and areas
Was the Hapsburg empire tightly unified before Charles VI?
No, each of the states wanted state's rights and there was always rebellion
What is militarism?
When military needs and values permeate all other spheres of life
What is margrave?
A name given to the elector of Brandenburg
What is Brandenburg?
- German state centered about Berlin
- Develops into Prussia
What was the "mark" of the Holy Roman Empire?
name for the bordering states of the HRE
Who were the Teutonic Knights?
- military crusading order which conquered and Christianized the native people in the 13th century
- Settled territory in northern Germany
- German pride
Who was Frederick William?
- The Great Elector
- One of the first men to modernize Prussia
- Created a good army
Who was Frederick III of Brandenburg?
- Same as Frederick I of Prussia
- Less honorable king who became the only/first King of Prussia
Who was Frederick II (The Great)?
- King of Prussia for 1713 to 1740
- Challenges Austria, beginning the War of the Austrian Succession
- Ruled in fatherly German way
What was Silesia?
- Of the Austrian Empire
- Frederick II claims this from Austria for Prussia
- Adds valuable industries to Prussia
- Another sparks of the War of the Austrian Succession
Why were small states able to become such a big influence in European affairs?
- Small armies and simple weapons
- Easy to control
- Limited people allowed to fight
What nation controlled most of the Baltic Sea in the 17th and 18th century?
- Baltic Sea= Swedish Lake
What two ethnic groups lived side by side in Eastern Europe and competed for territory in this region for most of European history?
Slavic and Germanic
What were the three disconnected masses of "new" Prussia?
- Brandenburg and Pomerania
- Slavic Pomerelia
- "Dutchy" of Prussia
Hoe was Frederick III of Brandeburg able to come the first King of Prussia?
Recieved recognition as king in return for sending troops for the HRE in the Wars of the Spanish Succession
What developed a life of it's own in Prussia?
- More than any other country
- Independent life of the state
How was the Prussian army able to be so successful?
- King used taxes and tariffs to pay for the army supplies
- Closer to the West and have territory there
What were the four military virtues of Prussia that later became the virtues of the Prussian aristocracy?
What was the state of the Prussian middle class in the 18th century?
- Agricultural and serfdom
- Small middle class
- Only the nobles were modernizing
What Prussian military act "startled" Europe in 1740?
- Frederick II- the great
- Started the War of the Austrian Succession
- Attacked Austria
What is Europeanization?
- The East took on more European approaches
- became closer with Europeans (Russians)
What is Muscovy?
- Home of the great russians
- Lived around Muscow- heart and soul of Russia
What is Slavic?
- The family of languages which Bohemians belonged
- People of Eastern Europe- language and culture
Who was Ivan III (The Great)?
- threw off Mongolian overlordship in Russia
- Asians no longer ruled Russia
- More independent
Who were the Great Russians?
name for Muscovites who lived in the area around Muscow
Who were the Tartars?
people who lived along the Volga River, supported by the Turkish and Mongolic tribes who invaded Eastern Europe
Who were the Cossacks?
Semi-independent "cowboys" who lived between the Tartars and Russians
Who were the White Russians?
lived west of Muscovy- where Balarus is now
Who were the Little Russians?
- lesser Russians
- Lived southwest of Muscovy- where Ukraine is now
What was Archangel?
- Peter the Great used this as a port for his navy
- Way by which Richard Chancellor arrived in Muscow form England
- Sea port in Northern Russia
What is the duma?
- Council of retainers
- Like diet is to HRE and Parliament is to England
- Not used until the 20th century
What is a streltsi?
- A kind of Muscow guard
- Royal guards that revolted against Peter the Great
Who was Ivan IV (The Terrible)?
- First Grand Duke of Muscovy to get the title of czar (tsar)
What was a Czar (Tsar)?
The title of royalty in Russia
What was the Time of Troubles?
- Russia fell into this after Ivan the Terrible died in 1584
- Civil War fighting for control
Who was Michael Romanov?
- 17 year old czar
- Family ruled Russia until 1917
- ruler (chosen) due to the Time of Troubles
What was the Romanov dynasty?
the Romanov family's rule in Russia until 1917 and the Russian Revolution
Who was Stephen Razin?
- Gathered fugutive serfs in 1667 (until 1671) and plundered Russian vessels in a kind of serf rebellion
- Eventually stopped and executed
Who were the Old Believers?
- rejected the reforms of the Russian Patriarch Church in the 1650's
- 17th century group against modernization
Who were the Procurators of the Holy Synod?
Head of he government bureau to make sure the Russian church didn't displease the czar
What was the German Quarter?
What was the Great Northern War?
- Fought between Russia and Sweden for supremacy in the Baltic Sea
What was the Treaty of Nystadt?
- Ended the Great Northern War
- essentially won by the Russians
What was St. Petersburg (Leningrad)?
land named after Peter the Great in Russia
What are the main reasons why Russia didn't participate in many of the European changes?
- Communication difficult due to terrain
- Mongolian rule
What was Russia like before Peter the Great?
Very Asian based
How were landlords able to maintain a work force in Russia?
Serfdom- allowed ruler to be absolute as long a landlords were allowed serfs
How was the Orthodox Church in Russia secularized in Russia?
- Government was instilled in church
What were Peter the Great's main goals while in power in Russia?
- Offense- gain western sea ports where the water was warmer and could be used year round
What was Russia's greatest enemy?
What were Peter the Great's econimic, social, political, and cultural goals for Russia?
Why was the Europeanization of Russia considered a paradox?
- Only the nobles were becoming modern
- 95% of people were serfs
- worked on the farm
- fought in war
- were drafted to help build cities and ports
What was the Polish geography in the 18th century?
- Largest European state, not including Russia
- Reached from Baltic to almost the Black Sea
- Extended eastward for 800 miles across north-european plain
Why did Prussians offer the proposal of the First Partition of Poland?
- Wanted to connect Prussia, making it a continuous territory (Pomerelia)
- Prevented Austro-Russian War and preserved balance of power (against Russia)
- Divided Poland into three sections
What three nations divided up Poland as a result of the Three Partitions of Poland?
Russia, Austria, and Prussia
How was balance of power different in the Partitions of Poland that in previous uses?
- Originally used to prevent absolute/universal monarchy
- Protect state's rights
- Later lost state's rights/ independence
- No war used, Poland completely divided/disappeared
How did the division Poland effect France?
- France had influenced Poland
- Losing it hurt them
- Protection and influence in Eastern Europe
How did the Partition of Poland effect nationalism?
- People were more connected to their land and ethnicity
- Wanted to be unified under one country
When was Peter the Great czar of Russia?
- Shared in 1682
- Power for hiself in 1689
How tall was Peter?
What did 17th century Russia resemble?
What is Peter's family name?
Who did Peter originally share his crown with?
Sophia and Ivan
Why did Peter make himself a drummer boy in his army?
Positions in war should be based on skill
Who attempted to kill Peter in 1689?
Sophia and the Royal Guard
Why was the assassination of Peter the Great unsuccessful?
Royal Guard did not want to kill him due to divine right
What was the percentage of serfs in Russia?
Why did the German suburb region fascinate Peter?
European modern style
Who explained the technologies of the Western World to Peter?
Why was there no Russian navy before Peter's reign?
- Far from the coast
- Not many ports to use
What port did Peter use to launch his navy in 1693?
Who considered Peter to be the devil?
Traditionalists and religious leaders
Why did Peter originally fight the Tartars?
- To gain control of the Black Sea
- Learned that in order to win a war he needed a strong navy
How did Peter travel through Europe in 1697?
What city did Peter the Great most want to see?
What was the secret to the Dutch's wealth?
Fleet of 4,000 trading ships
What did Peter name the ship he learned to make in the Netherlands?
the Peter and Paul
What king invited Peter the Great to London, England?
King William III
In what city does the Emperor of Austria live?
Why did Peter have to end his trip early?
Royal guard revolted
How did Peter react to the Royal Guard revolt?
- tortured and killed them to find more information
- Utilized Machiavelli's belief of being feared rather than loved
How did Peter change the style in Russia/Russian churches?
- Made men shave their beards to look more European
- Had to pay a tax to wear a beard
Which king does Peter battle with for control of the Baltic Sea?
What did Peter use to make weapons?
What city did Peter build to be the new capital?
- St. Petersburg
- To be a window to the west
How many workers died building St. Petersburg?
How did Peter make sure he would have enough stone to build St. Petersburg?
- Imported stone
- Didn't allow any other buildings to be made of stone besides in St. Petersburg
What tactics did Peter use in 1708 against the Swedish?
- Scorched Earth- destroy towns and supplies along the borders of Russia to leave the opposing army without supplies
- Used harsh Russian winters
What was the name of Peter's son?
Why did Peter execute his son?
- Ran away and wished for his father's death
- Possibly joined a revolt against him
What were the names given to Peter?
- Father of the Fatherland
- Peter the Great
- Emperor of Russia
What was the cause of Peter's death?
A cronic bladder infection along with sickness from diving overboard to help save soldiers
In what year did Peter die?
Where was Peter the Great buried?
In a cathedral in St. Petersburg
When did the Mongols cotrol Russia?
When did Ivan III control Russia?
- Threw off Mongol rule
When did Ivan IV rule Russia?
- Considered to be the first czar
When was the Time of Troubles?
When did Michael Romanov rule Russia?
- First of the Romonov dynasty
When did the Turkish invasion reach Vienna?
When did the Battle of Zenta take place?
When was the Peace of Karlowitz?
When was the Wars of the Spanish Succession?
When did Austria drive the Turks to the farthest point in the east and sign the Peace of Belgrade?
What were the parts of the Kingdom of Prussia?
- Farther Pomerania- later a part of Brandenburg
- -30 Years War 1648
- Slavic Pomerlia- West Prussia
- -Polish Parition 1772
- "Dutchy of Prussia"- East Prussia
- -Inherited by Hohenzolleras, formally incorporated in 1660
Who were the Electors of Brandenburg?
- Frederick William 1640-1688
- -Great Elector
- -leads Brandenburg out of the aftermath of 30 Years War
- Frederick III 1688-1713
Who were the Kings of Prussia?
- Frederick I (Frederick III) 1701-1713
- -In exchange for helping HRE in War of the Spanish Succession
- Frederick William I 1713-1740
- -Responsible for great army
- Frederick II (The Great) 1740-1786
What was the 1st Partition of the Polish Partitions?
- Russians called off war with Turks
- Turks admit Russia to Black Sea and give Russians "protector" status over Christians in Constantinople
- Russia gets Eastern slice of Poland
- Austria gets southern slice of Poland
- Prussia gets Pomerelia
What was the 2nd Partition of the Polish Partitions?
- Polish governments reform put down by Russian empress Catherine the Great
- She feared spread of French Revolutionary spirit of time
- Poland further divided
What was the 3rd Partition of the Polish Partitions?
- Crushes revolutionary movement and Poland disappears completely from the map of Europe